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Title: Towards the noise reduction of synthetic jet actuators using lobed orifices
Author: Jeyalingam, Jonne
ISNI:       0000 0004 7658 8277
Awarding Body: Brunel University London
Current Institution: Brunel University
Date of Award: 2018
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With increasing strain on the civil aviation industry to meet strict targets to reduce the adverse effects aviation has on the environment by 2050, significant advances in aircraft design and research are required. Aerodynamic improvements have been a focus for several decades now, however, current and future civil transport aircraft are based on traditional designs originating from the 1950s. Optimisation of aircraft external geometry for aerodynamic gain is reaching maturity and is becoming increasingly non-cost-effective. New advances in sensor and actuator technology has allowed for the development of active flow control (AFC) devices that have shown promising results in laboratory and even full-scale flight conditions, as seen by the joint NASA-Boeing ecoDemonstrator. One such device is the synthetic jet actuator (SJA), that synthesises periodic jets without the requirement for external air supply, while adding momentum to the surrounding flow. For this reason, SJAs are also referred to as zero-net-mass-flux actuators. There exists extensive work on the use of these devices for flow control applications in a laboratory setting. One of the key issues that remains unresolved, hindering successful aircraft application to-date, is the actuator self-noise generated. The noise level of SJAs can be so severe that they were rejected for application on the ecoDemonstrator in favour of a higher authority, quieter AFC device. SJAs were only considered for use in emergency situations on aircraft. Furthermore, the actuators were also not permitted to operate simultaneously at full power, which may severely limit scope for flow control on aircraft. Other applications that would benefit from SJAs include heat transfer for cooling in electronic devices. Studies in this field identify the same problem with noise levels of up to 73 dB reported. It is clear that work towards the self-noise reduction of SJAs is required to harness the full potential of this actuator technology. In the work presented, passive and active noise control measures in the form of lobed orifices and antiphase operation of two jets, respectively, on the noise reduction of SJAs are ii investigated. Noise sources of synthetic jet actuators include mechanical (diaphragm) and jet induced noise, where the focus of this work is on the latter type. Tests were conducted in quiescent conditions using jet velocity measurements, acoustic measurements, and flow visualisation. Tests were carried out using a single chamber SJA with variable cavity height and both circular and lobed orifices. These tests helped identify a SJA self-noise generation mechanism when using a circular orifice. This mechanism is characterised by a constant frequency behaviour visible in acoustic spectra for a specific jet Reynolds number range of 600 < Rej < 750 and Strouhal number range of 0.22 < St < 0.50. The geometries of the lobed orifices used in this work differ in lobe count and penetration. It was shown that a broadband noise reduction is possible with such orifices, with a maximum noise reduction of 14 dB at particular frequencies. The results indicate that a high number of lobes and penetration are preferred for noise reduction, however, at the expense of quickly dissipating downstream jet velocity. Flow visualisation reveals that this adverse effect is caused by enhanced mixing of lobed jets with ambient air that leads to earlier and more aggressive breakup of flow structures. A double chamber SJA is also used to demonstrate the noise attenuation through the antiphase operation of two cavities, caused by the interference pattern of the sound field of each source. The maximum reduction measured using this actuator configuration is 14 dB, depending on directivity.
Supervisor: Chong, T. P. ; Jabbal, M. Sponsor: EPSRC & RAeS
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Fluid mechanics ; Active flow control ; Aeroacoustics ; Axis-switching