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Title: Electrospray for pulmonary drug delivery
Author: Lajhar, Fathi
ISNI:       0000 0004 7657 8298
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2018
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Drug administration through the pulmonary route is an ancient technique that evolved from inhaling the smoke of certain leaves as a medicine. The optimum droplet diameter for the pulmonary system deposition has been identified to be in the range from 2 to 3.5 μm, with potential deposition rates of up to 80% of this size range. Currently, the most used aerosol generator methods are the pressurized metered dose inhalers. However, they generally exhibit low deposition efficiency with less than 20 % of the spray reaching the target area of the lungs as most of the drug deposited in the upper airways. This is for the most part due to the droplet size polydispersity that is inherent in these systems. The droplets of the biggest diameter will deposit in the upper airways, and then the deposited medicine will be swallowed and absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. This can produce adverse medical side effects. Electrospray (ES) or electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) is a promising atomization process due to its ability to produce a spray with monodisperse droplet size. The current study will investigate the feasibility of using electrospray in a pulmonary drug delivery system. Assessments, selection and characterization of suitable biocompatible solvents that can be used as a lung obstruction relief drug were carried out. Tests to identify the electrospray setup necessary to produce droplet sizes in the appropriate range for deposition in the lungs were carried out. The study found that both stable and pulsating cone jet modes can produce the required droplet size and the pulsating mode can produce at least four times higher flow than stable cone jet mode. A low-cost image analysis technique developed for this work gave satisfactory results that could be compared to droplet size scaling laws from the literature. However, it proved to be relatively time consuming and further automation of this technique would make it more suitable for large-scale studies. The image analysis results show a correlation between the cone length, cone angle and the applied voltage. The droplet scaling laws discrepancies such as the solution flow rate exponent and the constant that is used by some scaling laws may be attributed to the droplet evaporation time which is quite short for the water/ ethanol solutions. The emitter diameter and the conductivity effect on the I(Q) power law and the sensitivity of the onset voltage (Vonset) to the liquid flow rate (Q), were demonstrated for solutions of triethylene-glycol (TEG), and for an ethanol-water mixture solution.
Supervisor: Smith, Katharine Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Smith ; deposition ; Fathi Lajhar ; monodisperse droplet size ; ethanol-water mixture. ; solvents ; image analysis ; triethylene-glycol (TEG) ; the optimum droplet diameter ; biocompatible ; pressurized metered dose inhalers ; delivery ; polydispersity ; Electrospray ; drug ; medicine ; pulmonary ; spray ; electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) ; monodispersity ; aerosol