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Title: HDL functionality and LDL quality : the influence of obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea and pharmacological intervention
Author: Yadav, Rahul
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2013
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Aims: LDL oxidation plays an important role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. HDL impedes oxidation, glycation and glycoxidation in vitro and there is evidence to suggest paraoxonase-1 (PON1) plays an important role in this. 1. In patients with dyslipidaemia treated with statins, I assessed the relationship of serum PON1 activity with in vitro HDL antioxidant capacity, susceptibility of LDL to oxidation and the protection offered by HDL. 2. I studied the effect of the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in morbidly obese patients on HDL anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. 3. I investigated the influence of extended release niacin/ laropiprant (ERN/LRP) versus placebo in patients who had persistent dyslipidaemia despite receiving high doses of potent statins. I assessed the effect of ERN/LRP on mediators of vascular inflammation and HDL's in vitro anti-oxidant function. Methods: 1. LDL isolated from dyslipidemic patients was incubated with and without HDL, in the presence of Cu2+. Similarly isolated HDL was incubated alone. Lipid peroxides (LPO) generated over 3 hours were measured. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on median serum PON1 activity. 2. 41 morbidly obese patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of OSA ("OSA" and "no OSA" group) or on severity of OSA (high or low apnoea-hypoapnoea index (AHI) groups). I studied HDL's ability to protect itself from in vitro oxidation and measured serum PON1 activity, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1). 3. This was a randomised double blind cross over trial, where I studied the effect of ERN/LRP compared to placebo in 27 patients who had high LDL-C inspite of maximum tolerated doses of statins. I measured lipid profile, apolipoproteins, cholesteryl ester transport protein (CETP) activity, paraoxonase 1 activity (PON1), oxidised LDL (oxLDL) and related mediators of vascular inflammation. I also examined the capacity of HDL to protect LDL from in vitro oxidation. Results and conclusion: 1. In statin treated dyslipidemic patients the capacity of HDL to protect itself and LDL from oxidation in vitro is significantly better in individuals with higher serum PON1 activity. 2. The capacity of HDL to protect itself from in vitro oxidation in morbidly obese patients is reduced with onset and severity of OSA. The differences in TNFalpha and ICAM1 levels may suggest endothelial dysfunction due to OSA. Oxidative damage of PON1 attributable to OSA could be a mechanism for HDL and endothelial dysfunction. 3. Treatment with ERN/LRP resulted in a significant improvement in HDL-C but did not affect HDL's in vitro anti-oxidant function in patients who had persistent dyslipidaemia despite high doses of potent statins. For the first time I have shown that ERN/LRP reduces mediators of vascular inflammation.
Supervisor: Heagerty, Anthony Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (M.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnoea ; Vascular inflammation ; Atherosclerosis ; Laropiprant ; Nicotinic acid ; Paraoxonase1 ; HDL ; LDL ; Oxidation