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Title: Targeting the macrophage in equine post-operative ileus
Author: Lisowski, Zofia Maria
ISNI:       0000 0004 7654 5314
Awarding Body: University of Edinburgh
Current Institution: University of Edinburgh
Date of Award: 2018
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Post-operative ileus (POI) is the functional inhibition of propulsive intestinal motility which is a frequent occurrence following abdominal surgery in the horse and in humans. Rodent and human-derived data have shown that manipulation-induced activation of the resident muscularis externa (ME) macrophages in the intestine contributes to the pathophysiology of the disease. Most studies of the disease, specifically in the horse, have focussed on identification of risk factors, descriptive studies of the disease or the assessment of the efficacy of various therapeutic and prophylactic interventions. As a result, the proposed pathogenesis of equine POI is largely reliant on the translation of data from rodent models. The aims of this thesis were to identify macrophage populations in the normal equine gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and to study equine macrophage activation by stimulating equine bone marrow-derived macrophages (eqBMDMs) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a model for intestinal macrophage activation. Firstly, the normal population of macrophages in the equine GIT was determined. Using CD163 as an immunohistochemical marker for macrophages. CD163+ve cells were present in all tissue layers of the equine intestine: mucosa, submucosa, ME and serosa. CD163+ve cells were regularly distributed within the ME, with accumulations adjacent to the myenteric plexus, and therefore to intestinal motility effector cells such as neurons and the Interstitial Cells of Cajal. The differentiation and survival of intestinal macrophages depends upon signals from the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) receptor. LPS translocation from the gut lumen is thought to be a key activator of ME macrophages. To provide a model for gut macrophages, a protocol was optimised to produce pure populations of equine bone marrow-derived macrophages (eqBMDMs) by cultivation of equine bone marrow in CSF-1. Macrophage functionality was assessed using microscopy, flow cytometry and phagocytosis assays. EqBMDMs responded to LPS stimulation with increases in expression of positive control genes, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1). The same mRNA was subjected to transcriptomic (RNA-Seq) analysis. Differential gene expression and network cluster analysis demonstrated an inflammatory response characterised by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). However, in contrast to rodent macrophages, eqBMDMs failed to produce nitric oxide in response to LPS, showing species-specific variation in innate immune biology. Using these data, we compared gene expression in normal equine intestine and in intestine from horses undergoing abdominal surgery for colic (abdominal pain). Horses undergoing abdominal surgery showed evidence of increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the mucosa and ME when compared to control tissue. Horses with post-operative reflux (POR), a clinical sign of POI, had increased gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α compared to horses that did not develop POR following abdominal surgery. These preliminary data suggest that there is macrophage activation within the ME of the intestine during abdominal surgery in the horse, and that a greater activation state is present in horses that subsequently develop POR. The final part of this study was to investigate the effect of a long-acting form of CSF- 1, an Fc fusion protein (CSF1-Fc), as a potential treatment for POI using a mouse model. This work, performed in collaboration with another research group, found that mice lacking the C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) gene, which is required for monocyte recruitment into tissues, had a longer recovery period following intestinal manipulation (IM) than wild type (WT) mice. With the administration of CSF1-Fc, infiltration of neutrophils to the ME was reduced and the number of macrophages in the ME was increased in both WT and CCR2-/- mice following IM. Administration of CSF1-Fc in CCR2-/- mice improved recovery of gastrointestinal transit three days following IM, to the same extent as WT mice. Network cluster analysis and RT-qPCR of the ME revealed clusters of genes induced and downregulated by CSF1-Fc, with increased expression of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving genes after IM in WT and CCR2-/- mice following treatment with CSF1-Fc.
Supervisor: Hume, David ; Pirie, Scott ; Hudson, Neil Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: post-operative ileus ; equine macrophage activation ; equine bone marrowderived macrophages ; eqBMDMs ; lipopolysaccharide ; intestinal macrophage activation ; CSF1-Fc