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Title: Much ado about nothing : the superconformal index and Hilbert series of three dimensional N =4 vacua
Author: Barns-Graham, Alexander Edward
ISNI:       0000 0004 7653 8747
Awarding Body: University of Cambridge
Current Institution: University of Cambridge
Date of Award: 2019
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We study a quantum mechanical $\sigma$-model whose target space is a hyperKähler cone. As shown by Singleton, [184], such a theory has superconformal invariance under the algebra $\mathfrak{osp}(4^*|4)$. One can formally define a superconformal index that counts the short representations of the algebra. When the hyperKähler cone has a projective symplectic resolution, we define a regularised superconformal index. The index is defined as the equivariant Hirzebruch index of the Dolbeault cohomology of the resolution, hereafter referred to as the index. In many cases, the index can be explicitly calculated via localisation theorems. By limiting to zero the fugacities in the index corresponding to an isometry, one forms the index of the submanifold of the target space invariant under that isometry. There is a limit of the fugacities that gives the Hilbert series of the target space, and often there is another limit of the parameters that produces the Poincaré polynomial for $\mathbb C^\times$-equivariant Borel-Moore homology of the space. A natural class of hyperKähler cones are Nakajima quiver varieties. We compute the index of the $A$-type quiver varieties by making use of the fact that they are submanifolds of instanton moduli space invariant under an isometry. Every Nakajima quiver variety arises as the Higgs branch of a three dimensional $\mathcal N =4$ quiver gauge theory, or equivalently the Coulomb branch of the mirror dual theory. We show the equivalence between the descriptions of the Hilbert series of a line bundle on the ADHM quiver variety via localisation, and via Hanany's monopole formula. Finally, we study the action of the Poisson algebra of the coordinate ring on the Hilbert series of line bundles. We restrict to the case of looking at the Coulomb branch of balanced $ADE$-type quivers in a certain infinite rank limit. In this limit, the Poisson algebra is a semiclassical limit of the Yangian of $ADE$-type. The space of global sections of the line bundle is a graded representation of the Poisson algebra. We find that, as a representation, it is a tensor product of the space of holomorphic functions with a finite dimensional representation. This finite dimensional representation is a tensor product of two irreducible representations of the Yangian, defined by the choice of line bundle. We find a striking duality between the characters of these finite dimensional representations and the generating function for Poincaré polynomials.
Supervisor: Dorey, Nick Sponsor: STFC
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: quantum mechanics ; superconformal ; complex geometry ; yangian ; quantum group ; young tableaux ; quantum field theory ; string theory ; sheaf cohomology