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Title: ScatterNet hybrid frameworks for deep learning
Author: Singh, Amarjot
Awarding Body: University of Cambridge
Current Institution: University of Cambridge
Date of Award: 2019
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Image understanding is the task of interpreting images by effectively solving the individual tasks of object recognition and semantic image segmentation. An image understanding system must have the capacity to distinguish between similar looking image regions while being invariant in its response to regions that have been altered by the appearance-altering transformation. The fundamental challenge for any such system lies within this simultaneous requirement for both invariance and specificity. Many image understanding systems have been proposed that capture geometric properties such as shapes, textures, motion and 3D perspective projections using filtering, non-linear modulus, and pooling operations. Deep learning networks ignore these geometric considerations and compute descriptors having suitable invariance and stability to geometric transformations using (end-to-end) learned multi-layered network filters. These deep learning networks in recent years have come to dominate the previously separate fields of research in machine learning, computer vision, natural language understanding and speech recognition. Despite the success of these deep networks, there remains a fundamental lack of understanding in the design and optimization of these networks which makes it difficult to develop them. Also, training of these networks requires large labeled datasets which in numerous applications may not be available. In this dissertation, we propose the ScatterNet Hybrid Framework for Deep Learning that is inspired by the circuitry of the visual cortex. The framework uses a hand-crafted front-end, an unsupervised learning based middle-section, and a supervised back-end to rapidly learn hierarchical features from unlabelled data. Each layer in the proposed framework is automatically optimized to produce the desired computationally efficient architecture. The term `Hybrid' is coined because the framework uses both unsupervised as well as supervised learning. We propose two hand-crafted front-ends that can extract locally invariant features from the input signals. Next, two ScatterNet Hybrid Deep Learning (SHDL) networks (a generative and a deterministic) were introduced by combining the proposed front-ends with two unsupervised learning modules which learn hierarchical features. These hierarchical features were finally used by a supervised learning module to solve the task of either object recognition or semantic image segmentation. The proposed front-ends have also been shown to improve the performance and learning of current Deep Supervised Learning Networks (VGG, NIN, ResNet) with reduced computing overhead.
Supervisor: Kingsbury, Nick Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: ScatterNet ; Deep Learning ; Object Recognition ; Image Segmentation ; Wavelets