Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: A genome wide approach to stress response and chronological ageing in yeast
Author: Cao, Lu
ISNI:       0000 0004 7652 4011
Awarding Body: University of Cambridge
Current Institution: University of Cambridge
Date of Award: 2018
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Full text unavailable from EThOS. Thesis embargoed until 01 Jan 2400
Access from Institution:
Caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan from yeast to mammals. In budding yeast, inhibition of the conserved TOR and/or PKA pathways has been shown to mediate lifespan extension by CR partly through the activation of stress response. However, how the stress response is regulated at the systems level is poorly understood. In this study, by using fluorescent reporters whose expression is dependent on the transcription factors Msn2/4 and Gis1, two separate screenings were conducted to reveal novel regulators of the stress response induced by starvation. A 'focused' screening on the 272 'signalling' mutants revealed that, apart from the previously identified Rim15, Yak1 and Mck1 kinases, the SNF1/AMPK complex, the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway and a number of cell cycle regulators are necessary to elicit appropriate stress response. The chronological lifespan (CLS) of these signalling mutants correlates well with the amount of accumulated storage carbohydrates but poorly with transition-phase cell cycle status. Subsequent analyses reveal that the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species are controlled by Rim15, Yak1 and Mck1. Furthermore, CLS extension enabled by tor1 deletion is dependent on the above three kinases. These data suggest that the signalling pathways (SNF1 and CWI) and the kinases downstream of TOR/PKA (Rim15, Yak1 and Mck1) coordinate the metabolic reprogramming (to accumulate storage carbohydrates) and the activation of anti-oxidant defence systems (to control ROS levels) to extend chronological lifespan. A 'genome-wide' screening of a haploid deletion library indicates that less than 10% of the non-essential genes are implicated in the regulation of starvation-induced stress response. Gene ontology analysis suggests that they can be grouped into major clusters including mitochondrial function, r-RNA processing, DNA damage and repair, transcription from RNA polymerase and cell cycle regulation. Further phenotypic assays confirm the previous observation that CLS extension is mostly correlated with the accumulation of storage carbohydrates. Compromised expression of stress response reporters is confirmed by FACS in a variety of mitochondrial mutants, suggesting that mitochondrial respiration also plays a key role in the activation of stress response. Put together, the above findings indicate that stress response and metabolic reprogramming induced by glucose starvation are coordinated by multiple signalling pathways and the activation of mitochondrial respiration is essential to both cellular processes and to CLS extension.
Supervisor: Zhang, Nianshu ; Oliver, Stephen George Sponsor: National University of Defense Technology
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: stress response ; chronological lifespan ; mitochondrial function ; metabolic reprogramming