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Title: Non-classicality as a computational resource
Author: Catani, Lorenzo
ISNI:       0000 0004 7660 7781
Awarding Body: UCL (University College London)
Current Institution: University College London (University of London)
Date of Award: 2018
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One of the main questions in the field of quantum computation is where the quantum computational speed-up comes from. Recent studies in the field of quantum foundations have suggested which are the features to be considered as inherently non-classical. One of the major contributions in this direction comes from a result known as Spekkens' toy theory, which is a model built to reproduce quantum theory as a classical phase-space-inspired theory with restrictions on what an observer can know about reality. The model reproduces many of the features of quantum mechanics, but it does not reproduce non-locality and contextuality. In this thesis we first complete Spekkens' toy theory with measurement update rules and a mathematical framework that generalises it to systems of any finite dimensions (prime and non-prime). We also extend the operational equivalence between the toy theory and stabilizer quantum mechanics to all odd dimensions via Gross' Wigner functions. We then use the toy theory to represent the non-contextual and classically simulatable part of the computation in state-injection schemes of quantum computation where contextuality is a resource. In the case of qubits, we show that the subtheories of quantum mechanics represented in the toy model can achieve the full stabilizer theory via state-injection and we associate different proofs of contextuality to different injection processes. Stepping back from Spekkens' toy theory, we conclude by focusing on single system protocols that compute non-linear functions (similarly to the popular CHSH game) which show quantum advantages even in absence of non-locality and contextuality (in its standard notions). We analyse their performances (formalised in Bell's and Tsirelson's bounds) in relation to Landauer's principle, which associates entropic costs to irreversible computations, and to a new notion of contextuality for sequences of transformations.
Supervisor: Browne, D. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available