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Title: Development of new cold bitumen emulsion mixtures and finite element modelling of predicting permanent deformation
Author: Shanbara, H. K.
ISNI:       0000 0004 7659 1943
Awarding Body: Liverpool John Moores University
Current Institution: Liverpool John Moores University
Date of Award: 2018
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The increase of road infrastructure around the world involving the traditional hot mix asphalt (HMA) technology and its effects on the environment and health means that serious attention needs to be paid to building more sustainable flexible pavements. Cold bitumen emulsion mixture (CBEM) as an increasingly attractive cold asphalt mixture is therefore becoming an important subject area for study. Despite the efforts applied during the last few decades to enhance and develop CBEM application, certain issues still exist that make it inferior to HMA, resulting in limiting or minimizing its use. However, the enhancement of CBEM for flexible pavements construction, rehabilitation and maintenance is increasingly gaining interest in both pavement engineering industrial and research sectors. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to gain a deep insight and understanding into the impact response of using natural and synthetic fibres as reinforcing materials, on the mechanical properties and water susceptibility of CBEM including indirect tensile stiffness and resistance to rutting, cracking and moisture damage. Four different types of fibres were used: glass as a synthetic fibre, and hemp, jute and coir as natural fibres. Various samples of CBEM, with and without fibres, were fabricated and tested. Traditional hot mix asphalt mixture was also used for comparison. By achieving this aim it is expected that the use of CBEM would increase, allowing such mixtures to be used as structural pavement materials with some confidence. In spite of the quality of an asphalt mix being one of the most important and significant factors that affect the performance of both hot and cold mix flexible pavements, and the high quality mixes are often cost effective as these mixes require less maintenance and increase the service life of the pavements, it is also cost efficient to replace the semi-experimental flexible pavement design methods with fast and powerful software that includes finite element analysis. Several finite element models (FEM) have been developed to simulate the behaviour of hot mix asphalt, but none exists for cold mix asphalt reinforced by natural and synthetic fibres. This study also describes the development of a three-dimensional (3-D), finite element model of flexible pavements made with CBEMs, which has itself been reinforced with natural and synthetic fibres. The 3-D finite element model was employed to predict the viscoelastic and viscoplastic responses of flexible pavements based on CBEM when subjected to different multiple axle loads, bituminous material properties, tyre speeds and temperatures. The pavements were subject to moving and static loading conditions to test for permanent deformation (rutting). The results indicate a significant improvement in the indirect tensile stiffness modulus, for all fibre-reinforced CBEMs, over different curing times. The improved tensile behaviour represents a substantial contribution towards slowing crack propagation in bituminous mixtures, while scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed the fibre shape and surface roughness characteristics. The improved performance of the reinforced mixtures with both natural and synthetic fibres facilitated a substantially lower permanent deformation than traditional hot and cold mixtures at two different temperatures (45 °C and 60 °C). When using glass and hemp fibres as reinforcing materials, there was a significant improvement in CBEM in terms of water sensitivity. These reinforcing materials can extend the service life of flexible pavements. Finally, the results show that the finite element model can successfully predict rutting of flexible pavements under different temperatures and wheel loading conditions.
Supervisor: Ruddock, F. ; Atherton, W. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: TE Highway engineering. Roads and pavements