Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Psychological help-seeking attitudes and perfectionism in different ethnic groups
Author: Chan, H. Y.
ISNI:       0000 0004 7658 548X
Awarding Body: University of Liverpool
Current Institution: University of Liverpool
Date of Award: 2018
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Access from Institution:
Perfectionism is multidimensional psychological construct and is highly associated with psychological difficulties. Existing research suggests that there are ethnic variations in perfectionism. However, there are limited studies reporting how perfectionism and psychological difficulties, as well as perfectionism and help-seeking attitudes, can differ across the diverse adult ethnic groups. This thesis aimed to address these research gaps by conducting: a systematic review (Chapter 1) and a cross-sectional empirical study (Chapter 2). Chapter 1, the literature review, identified and synthesized existing research in perfectionism and depression involving comparison of adults from multiple ethnic backgrounds. Nine papers were included in this review. To be eligible, studies needed to be peer-reviewed and published in English; to include measures of perfectionism and depression, and statistical analyses comparing different ethnic groups in relation to these measures. Evaluative concerns (i.e. self-criticism associated with failure or self-perception of failing to meet others' and/or their own expectations) were significantly related to depression across all ethnicities examined. However, there was an inconsistent relationship between depression and achievement striving (i.e. personal standards of perfectionism) and family perfectionism across the ethnic groups examined. The ethnic similarities and differences in perfectionism and depression impose relevant clinical implications. Given these ethnic differences, the results suggest that clinicians should tailor their assessment, formulation and therapeutic interventions accordingly in keeping with the individual's ethnic background. Chapter 2, the empirical paper, drew on the recommendations from the systematic review to examine the ethnic differences in perfectionism and help-seeking attitudes. This study involved University students (n=1066) completing a set of online questionnaires. Two ethnic groups, China-born Chinese International students (n=109) and UK-born White British home students (n=541), were compared on three dimensions of perfectionism as well as depression and anxiety states. Using cluster analysis, two groups were formed: "higher perfectionism and psychological distress" and "lower perfectionism and psychological distress". Multiple ANOVA analyses and t-tests were then performed to examine the ethnic differences between these variables in each cluster group, and how the clusters differed in help-seeking attitudes. The findings revealed that White British students reported significantly greater levels of self-oriented and socially-prescribed perfectionism than Chinese students. Perfectionism and depression and anxiety states were negatively associated with help-seeking attitudes in White British and Chinese student groups. Both groups reporting higher levels of perfectionism and depression and anxiety states had less favourable attitudes to seek help; those with lower levels of perfectionism and psychological distress had more favourable attitudes to seek help. The ethnic variations in perfectionism and psychological distress may pose clinical implications for mental health services. Services should actively promote UK-born White British and Chinese International students' access to mental health services. However, the focus of psychological interventions and psychoeducation should be different for these two ethnic groups.
Supervisor: Dowrick, Christopher ; Centifanti, Luna Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (D.Clin.Psy.) Qualification Level: Doctoral