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Title: Investigating climate change and carbon cycling during the Latest Cretaceous to Paleogene (~67-52 million years ago) : new geochemical records from the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans
Author: Barnet, J.
ISNI:       0000 0004 7653 7496
Awarding Body: University of Exeter
Current Institution: University of Exeter
Date of Award: 2018
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The Late Cretaceous–early Paleogene is the most recent period of Earth history with a dynamic carbon cycle that experienced sustained global greenhouse warmth and can offer a valuable insight into our anthropogenically-warmer future world. Yet, knowledge of ambient climate conditions and evolution of the carbon cycle at this time, along with their relation to forcing mechanisms, are still poorly constrained. In this thesis, I examine marine sediments recovered from the South Atlantic Walvis Ridge (ODP Site 1262) and Indian Ocean Ninetyeast Ridge (IODP Site U1443 and ODP Site 758), to shed new light on the evolution of the climate and carbon cycle from the Late Maastrichtian through to the Early Eocene (~67.10–52.35 Ma). The overarching aims of this thesis are: 1) to identify the long-term trends and principle forcing mechanisms driving the climate and carbon cycle during this time period, through construction of 14.75 million-year-long, orbital-resolution (~1.5–4 kyr), stratigraphically complete, benthic stable carbon (δ13Cbenthic) and oxygen (δ18Obenthic) isotope records; 2) to investigate in more detail the climatic and carbon-cycle perturbations of the Early–Middle Paleocene (e.g., the Dan-C2 event, Latest Danian Event and the Danian/Selandian Transition Event) and place these in their proper (orbital) temporal context; 3) to investigate the Late Maastrichtian warming event and its relationship to the eruption of the Deccan Traps Large Igneous Province, as well as its role (if any) in the subsequent Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) mass extinction; 4) to provide the first orbital-resolution estimates of temperature and carbonate chemistry variability from the low latitude Indian Ocean spanning the Late Paleocene–Early Eocene, through analysis of trace element and stable isotope data from multiple foraminiferal species. Taken together, the results presented in this thesis provide a critical new insight into the dynamic evolution of the climate and carbon cycle during the greenhouse world of the early Paleogene, and shed light on the potential forcing mechanisms driving the climate and carbon cycle during this time.
Supervisor: Littler, K. ; Kroon, D. ; Bailey, I. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Paleoceanography ; Palaeoceanography ; Paleoclimate ; Palaeoclimate ; Orbital forcing ; Milankovitch cyclicity ; Stable carbon isotopes ; Stable oxygen isotopes ; Trace metals ; Foraminifera ; Cretaceous ; Paleogene ; Maastrichtian ; K/Pg boundary ; Paleocene ; Eocene ; South Atlantic ; Indian Ocean ; Walvis Ridge ; Ninetyeast Ridge ; Ocean Drilling Program ; International Ocean Discovery Program