Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.760039
Title: Functional studies of YAP1 in cancer and embryonic development
Author: Shah, Nupur R.
ISNI:       0000 0004 7432 0568
Awarding Body: University of Aberdeen
Current Institution: University of Aberdeen
Date of Award: 2018
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Abstract:
The Hippo pathway is a master regulator of cell proliferation and organ size, namely through regulation of transcriptional co-activators YAP and TAZ which bind TEAD1-4 transcription factors. The Hippo effector YAP is dysregulated in many human solid tumours including rhabdomyosarcoma and oesophageal cancer. Additionally, persistent hyperactivity of YAP in activated but not quiescent satellite cells can give rise to embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. However, the question of exactly how YAP acts as an oncogene and actively gives rise to tumour progression in these cancers remains unknown. In this thesis I characterised the mechanisms which determine the functional role of YAP in driving instability in the genome. Secondly, lentiviral mediated knockdown of YAP is performed to determine and investigate its effect on tumorigenesis. Thirdly, gene sets from constitutive YAP S127A induced mouse ERMS tumours subjected to array-CGH were further analysed. Finally, I cloned chicken Yap1, Tead1 and Fstl5 to identify its role during chick embryonic development, by the retroviral mediated loss of function approach. The results demonstrated that constitutive YAP S127A expression in-vitro as well as in-vivo induces chromosomal instability by increasing the rate of mitotic chromosome segregation errors and copy number alterations of oncogenes and other cancer related genes. Recurrent copy number gains of the p53 inhibitor Mdm2 were observed in YAP S127A-driven ERMS tumours. Moreover, lentiviral mediated YAP knockdown showed significant reduction in proliferation, migration and invasion as well as transformation potential in human cultured cancer cells. Moreover, retroviral YAP S127A expression during early stages of chick embryo development did not lead to an overt phenotype and showed poor survival. Additionally, I have cloned RCAS-RNAi vectors to study the loss of function effect on Hippo targets and Fstl5 during chicken embryo development. Collectively, my data provides insight into the mechanisms with which YAP could drive tumorigenesis and that YAP knockdown can be considered a potential therapeutic target to reduce cancer progression.
Supervisor: Vargesson, Neil ; Petty, Russell D. ; Stevenson, David A. J. Sponsor: Grampian Gastro-Oesophageal Cancer Research Fund
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.760039  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Embryology, Human ; Fetus ; Cancer ; Cellular signal transduction ; Rhabdomyosarcoma
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