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Title: Targeting of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway and associated kinases in breast and colon cancer cells and response evaluation by molecular imaging techniques
Author: Phyu, Su Myat
ISNI:       0000 0004 7431 9954
Awarding Body: University of Aberdeen
Current Institution: University of Aberdeen
Date of Award: 2018
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The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT (Protein Kinase B)/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signalling pathway, downstream of tyrosine kinase receptors, is upregulated in human cancers including breast and colon cancers. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK 3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase plays important role in various cellular processes including glycogen synthesis mediated by insulin signalling pathway. Moreover, 5' adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), a crucial cellular energy sensor, has regulatory role in cell growth and proliferation through mTOR pathway. Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is the major phospholipid in the mammalian cell membranes and is mainly synthesized by the CDP-choline pathway. Malignant transformation has been reported to be associated with altered choline metabolism. Hyperactivation of the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway upregulates the key enzymes of phospholipid metabolism. The first line antidiabetic drug, metformin, modulates glucose and concomitant lipid metabolism through AMPK activation. Studies suggest phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and breakdown through CDP-choline pathway are modulated by glucose metabolism and de novo fatty acid synthesis. Cancer cell growth inhibitory effect of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/GSK3 pathway inhibitors and metformin were investigated by cytotoxic assay, western blot and cell cycle analysis in breast and colon cancer cells. IC50 values of anticancer drugs and combination indices between drug combinations were determined. 31P-NMR was carried out on cell extracts after drug treatments. [14C (U)] glucose and [3H] choline incorporation into lipids were also determined. All inhibitors targeting PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, GSK3 and metformin have cancer cell growth inhibition. By 31P-NMR, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibition induced agent-specific changes in PCho intensity. Increased UDP-sugars observed in breast and colon cancer cell extracts treated with LY294002 and AZD8055, an effect abrogated by inclusion of a GSK3 inhibitor. A link between glycolytic intermediates and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis was investigated by metformin and GSK3 inhibitor in breast and colon cancer cells.
Supervisor: Smith, Timothy A. D. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Cellular signal transduction ; Cell interaction ; Cancer cells ; Breast ; Colon (Anatomy) ; Diagnostic imaging ; Imaging systems in medicine