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Title: Design and development of learning material with the 'Ten Steps to Complex Learning' : a multiple case study
Author: Husnin, Hazrati
ISNI:       0000 0004 7431 677X
Awarding Body: University of Warwick
Current Institution: University of Warwick
Date of Award: 2017
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This study is an example of design and development research involving the design and development of learning material using the Ten Steps to Complex Learning model or TSM. It seeks to answer the key question, what is the value of the TSM? It does this by asking: What is TSM?; How does TSM work?; Is TSM useful?; and What are the contexts that need to be considered in adapting TSM?. TSM is a prescriptive instructional design model comprises of ten design steps needed in designing instruction. The ten steps are the expansion from four design components; learning task; supportive information; procedural information; and part-task practice; that derived from the 4C/ID model. TSM emphasises designing instruction for complex learning that promotes transfer of learning. In order to explore TSM, the model was used in developing learning material for three different topics using computer-based instruction as a medium of instruction. The study involved three different contexts, meaning that a multiple case study approach was adopted. The cases covered different higher education institutions in Malaysia and involved Interface Design, Injection Moulding, and Web Programming. The three cases enabled an exploration of the value of TSM by reflecting on the experience of design and by the gathering of the perspectives of learners and lecturers on the learning materials. Each case involved a mixed method data collection procedure that comprises of interview with the lecturer who taught the subject; online survey (Case 1: 16 items, n=17 and 18 items, n=6; Case 2: 17 items, n=21; Case 3: 18 items, n=15); Facebook feedback (in Case 1), open-ended questions (in all cases); observation, and document analysis. Each case study was examined with direct reference to the TSM whereby the process of reflecting on action that build up the knowledge about TSM and how it works in practice were recorded in a design log. The mixed methods enabled data triangulation and provide an in-depth exploration of TSM. From the reflection on the three cases studies, it was found that, TSM is a procedural model and could be categorized as product-oriented model. TSM works by breaking down the competencies or complex skills into learning task and structuring the content of the subject matter. TSM also was found useful in terms of focusing on content and learning task but was weak in considering context. The study suggested TSM should be used flexibly and designers should consider the content and curriculum, placement of media and learner readiness, they should also be aware that design takes place in a wider ecological context. These findings provide the basis for a model of design. This study not just brings value to the field by describing the use of TSM but also raises wider issues about design in general. Design is not solely about following procedures but is shaped by social cultural context. Designers need to ask the right key questions of where and how the learning takes place as well as who the learners are.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Government of Malaysia ; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: LB Theory and practice of education