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Title: Does colouring promote mindfulness and enhance wellbeing? : a randomised controlled trial
Author: Singh, Navreen K.
ISNI:       0000 0004 7431 5718
Awarding Body: University of Surrey
Current Institution: University of Surrey
Date of Award: 2018
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Objectives: Colouring books for adults have become increasingly popular. Some of these books are marketed on the basis that they improve mindfulness and promote wellbeing. Using a randomised design, this study aimed to empirically explore whether the provision of guidance on how to colour mindfully is necessary to increase mindfulness, and to reduce worry, perceived stress and work-related rumination. Moreover, the study aimed to assess whether changes in mindfulness predicted changes in worry, perceived stress and work-related rumination. The extent to which trait perfectionism might impact on possible beneficial effects of colouring was also explored. Design: Sixty-four participants (49 female, 15 male, 84% Caucasian, mean age 36) were randomly assigned to either a mindfulness-instructed condition (MI) or non-mindfulness instructed condition (NI). Participants were instructed to colour in designs in a book on 10 occasions over a two-week period. Mindfulness, worry, perceived stress and work-related rumination were measured pre and post the colouring intervention and at one-month follow up. Perfectionism was measured once, prior to the two-week colouring period. Results: Analysis of Covariance indicated no significant differences between conditions in post-colouring and follow up levels of mindfulness, perceived stress, worry or work-related rumination whilst controlling for pre-intervention scores. Oneway Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance for the whole sample indicated significant increases in acting with awareness and nonreacting mindfulness subscales, and a significant decrease in worry, affective rumination and problem-solving pondering pre-to post intervention. Changes in the nonjudging mindfulness facet pre-to post intervention were found to predict changes in worry from pre-intervention to follow up. There was little evidence of a relationship between perfectionism and change in wellbeing variables. Conclusions: Colouring, with or without mindfulness guidance, appears to increase aspects of mindfulness and improve wellbeing. Replication of these results, and further research exploring whether colouring is intrinsically mindful is warranted.
Supervisor: John, Mary ; Simonds, Laura Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (D.Psych.) Qualification Level: Doctoral