Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.759410
Title: Characterisation of chromatin extracellular traps in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Author: Van, Andre P.
ISNI:       0000 0004 7431 4483
Awarding Body: University of Stirling
Current Institution: University of Stirling
Date of Award: 2018
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Abstract:
One of the greatest challenges in finfish aquaculture is combating losses caused by infectious bacterial diseases, and a better understanding of the interactions between the host immune system and pathogens is essential for developing new methods to manage infections and outbreaks. Extracellular traps (ETs) are decondensed nuclear chromatin released by neutrophils into the extracellular matrix that can ensnare and kill microbes. Since the discovery of ETs in humans, these innate immune effectors have been characterised across the animal kingdom, including in some fish species, though their existence the salmonids has yet to be confirmed. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to confirm and characterise the release of ETs in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and investigate the interaction of these structures with fish pathogenic bacteria. To do this, a triple-layer Percoll gradient technique was employed to give highly enriched cell suspensions of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) derived from head-kidney tissue preparations. Treatment of PMN-enriched cell suspensions with the nucleic-acid-specific stain, SYTOX Green, revealed the presence of ET-like structures that had been released without stimulation. These ET-like structures were confirmed by immunostaining techniques to contain the diagnostic proteinaceous markers of ETs: neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase and the H2A histone. Previously characterised inhibitors and inducers of ET release from phagocytic immune cells in other animals confirmed that calcium ionophore (CaI), flagellin, and cytochalasin D shared similar activities for ET-release by rainbow trout PMNs. However, interestingly, as the common ET-inducer phorbol-myristate acetate (PMA) and ET-inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) did not exert their expected potency in ET release assays with the PMNs, perhaps indicating that these fish cells are less dependent on NADPH oxidase signalling for ET release compared to mammals and most invertebrate species. The PMN-derived ETs were demonstrated to bind to and trap the extracellular nuclease-deficient bacterial fish pathogen, Vibrio anguillarum (Vib 87) when co-cultured. Finally, extracellular nuclease activity produced by a V. anguillarum isolate (Vib 6) during culture was able to degrade ETs released by rainbow trout PMNs in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, viable colony counts, fluorescent and phase contrast microscopy demonstrated that V. anguillarum Vib 6 eluded trapping by ETs, while an extracellular nuclease-deficient isolate did not. These observations are consistent with the suggestion that nucleases are a microbial virulence factor during host infection. Confirming the existence and antimicrobial potential of extracellular traps released by rainbow trout PMNs may provide a platform towards the development of novel therapeutics to reduce mortalities in finfish aquaculture caused by infectious microbial pathogens.
Supervisor: Desbois, Andrew P. ; Bron, James E. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.759410  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Antimicrobial mechanisms ; Aquaculture ; Chromatin ; DNA ; DNase ; ETs ; Extracellular traps ; Fish Immunology ; Fluorescence ; Histone ; Immunology ; Innate Immunity ; Microscopy ; Myeloperoxidase ; NETs ; Neutrophil ; Neutrophil elastase ; Neutrophil extracellular traps ; Nuclease ; Oncorhynchus mykiss ; PMN ; Polymorphonuclear cell ; Rainbow trout ; Vibrio anguillarum ; Rainbow trout--Diseases
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