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Title: Towards reliable and secure physical unclonable functions
Author: Mispan, Mohd Syafiq
ISNI:       0000 0004 7431 3130
Awarding Body: University of Southampton
Current Institution: University of Southampton
Date of Award: 2018
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Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have emerged as a promising primitive that can be used to provide a hardware root of trust for integrated circuit (IC) applications. PUFs exploit the random intrinsic manufacturing process variations that map a set of challenges to a set of responses. The mapping of challenge-response pairs (CRPs) is unique and random to each PUF instance, which makes PUFs a very promising technology for robust security devices. PUFs have been proposed for lightweight IC identification and authentication, and cryptographic key generation. However, as CMOS technology scales down, device ageing becomes more pronounced and introduces reliability issues for PUF circuits. When PUFs undergo ageing, the response changes. As a consequence, the trustworthy identity of the ICs can be violated. The area overhead of an error correction code (ECC) in a PUF-based system needed to generate error-free cryptographic keys also increases. Furthermore, a PUF is physically unclonable but its function is susceptible to modelling attacks from machine learning (ML) techniques. Therefore, providing reliable and secure PUFs for lightweight applications is a major challenge. This thesis studies the reliability of PUFs for lightweight applications under ageing. It also considers the susceptibility of PUFs to ML-based attacks. This thesis presents three major contributions. The context of the first and second contributions is within the lightweight IC identification and authentication, and the third contribution is within the cryptographic key generation. The first contribution presents an analysis of the impact of ageing on PUF-based differential architectures. The simulation results demonstrate that a differential design technique to build a PUF can be a mechanism to mitigate the first-order dependencies of ageing such as the duty cycle and supply voltage. The second contribution proposes a challenge permutation technique to increase the complexity of the CRP mapping. The technique has been implemented on an Arbiter-PUF using a TSMC 65-nm technology. The simulation results show that using a challenge permutation technique can alter the output transition probability of Arbiter-PUF, resulting in the reduction of its predictability from 99% to 65%. The challenge permutation technique introduces no extra overhead as it can be implemented by routing obfuscation. Finally, the third contribution proposes a bit selection technique in a dual use of SRAM as a memory and PUF to mitigate the ageing impact and reduce the area overhead of the ECC. The results show that the proposed technique can effectively reduce the bit errors due to ageing and the area overhead of the ECC is reduced by about 6 times compared to that without bit selection.
Supervisor: Zwolinski, Mark ; Halak, Basel ; Su, Haibo Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available