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Title: The late Qing Xinzheng (new policies) reforms in Mongolia, 1901-1911
Author: Yee, Ki Yip
ISNI:       0000 0004 7431 2269
Awarding Body: SOAS University of London
Current Institution: SOAS, University of London
Date of Award: 2017
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The aim of this thesis is to analyse the nature, imposition and effects of the late Qing xinzheng reforms in Mongolia, and to analyze the episode from its historical roots till the dynasty's demise in 1911. Put simply, xinzheng was a modernization drive implemented throughout the Qing empire in order to save the dynasty from irreversible decline and, to a certain extent, to emulate the astounding success of the Meiji reforms in neighbouring Japan. For the purpose of this thesis, the analysis has been subdivided into the categories of agrarian policy, administrative reform, training of new armies, establishment of modern schools, introduction of new enterprises, exploitation of natural resources, construction of railways, and establishment of postal and telegram services. The xinzheng were very much the product of macro-historical forces, such as the weakening of the Qing empire since the mid-nineteenth century, the presence of imperialist powers on China's soil, and the relative rise of Han Chinese officials and decline of Mongolian nobility in late Qing politics. The reforms not only failed to save the Qing empire, but they further intensified the inter-ethnic tensions between Han, Manchus and Mongols. Coupled with historical contingencies (e.g. personal ambitions of Qing officials, the attitudes of Mongolian leaders), the xinzheng reforms eventually led to the independence movement of Outer Mongolia, and the parting ways between Outer and Inner Mongolia. Many scholars of Mongolian history have not considered the xinzheng reforms in Qing Mongolia as having had any lasting impact upon the region, apart from triggering the independence movement. Consequently, this important event has been largely neglected and generally treated only as a short chapter in Mongolia's history, or as a side aspect in the relations between China and Russia. Conversely, the reforms in Mongolia magnified the division between Inner and Outer Mongolia, and altered the geopolitical situation in Inner Asia. To date, no study has been attempted which charts the modernization of Mongolia as a direct consequence of the late imperial reform policies. This thesis therefore fills an important lacuna in the historical gestation of inner Asia.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral