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Title: Serine hydrolase activity and roles for monoacylglycerol lipase in innate immunity and intestinal inflammation
Author: Ambrose, Timothy James William
ISNI:       0000 0004 7430 789X
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2018
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Detection of evolutionarily conserved pathogen motifs by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), particularly on dendritic cells (DCs), is crucial for adequate immune responses. Defects in DC function are known to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is the system through which exocannabinoids such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol signal. Regarding inflammation, cannabinoids generally exert anti-inflammatory effects, including on experimental colitis. However, most work has been performed in animal models and less is known about the function of this system in human immune cells, particularly DCs. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGLL) is the key enzyme for hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and a member of the serine hydrolase enzyme superfamily. This thesis defines the activity of serine hydrolase enzymes for the first time in human DCs upon stimulation by NOD2/TLR2 ligands using activity-based protein profiling (ABPP). MGLL is shown to be ubiquitously upregulated upon stimulation of DCs and in monocyte-derived macrophages. Through pharmacological inhibition studies, MGLL is demonstrated to regulate cellular and secreted lipids, not limited to endocannabinoids. However, overall DC function is independent of this enzyme suggesting that the effects of lipid modulation may be on bystander cells. Challenging the current literature, MGLL inhibition with a novel inhibitor worsens murine Citrobacter rodentium colitis. Finally, ABPP demonstrates a rich serine hydrolome in colonic tissue from human IBD with many enzymes previously undefined in this disease. Gene expression of ECS components suggests the enzymes ABHD12 and DAGLα/β may be potential markers of field change in IBD.
Supervisor: Greaves, David ; Simmons, Alison Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Endocannabinoid system ; Innate immunity ; Inflammatory bowel disease ; Dendritic cells ; Crohn's disease ; Ulcerative colitis ; Cannabinoid ; Cannabis