Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.756529
Title: Novel applications of positron emission tomography in the non-invasive assessment of cardiovascular disease
Author: Jenkins, William Stephen Arthur
ISNI:       0000 0004 7429 403X
Awarding Body: University of Edinburgh
Current Institution: University of Edinburgh
Date of Award: 2018
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Abstract:
Introduction. Fused Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography (PET/CT) is an emerging investigative tool in cardiovascular disease that provides an imaging-based quantification of pathophysiological processes of interest. The purpose of this thesis was to study the application of PET to identify fundamental pathophysiological processes driving 3 forms of cardiovascular disease: aortic stenosis, myocardial infarction, and atherosclerosis. Methods. Aortic Stenosis. Patients with a spectrum of calcific aortic valve disease (n=121) who underwent PET-CT imaging for the identification of valvular calcification (18Ffluoride) and inflammation (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, 18F-FDG) underwent serial imaging and clinical follow-up over 2 years. Baseline imaging findings were compared with echocardiographic and CT markers of disease progression and clinical outcome. Myocardial Infarction. Patients underwent PET-CT imaging with 18F-fluciclatide (a novel αvβ3-selective radiotracer highlighting active angiogenesis, inflammation and fibrosis) after ST-segment elevation MI (n=21), alongside stable patients with chronic total occlusion (CTO) of a major coronary vessel (n=7), and healthy volunteers (n=9). Myocardial radiotracer uptake was compared with clinical and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) markers of infarction and remodeling. Atherosclerosis. Patients with a spectrum of atherosclerotic disease categorized as stable or unstable (recent MI) underwent PET/CT imaging with 18F-fluciclatide (n=46). Thoracic aortic 18F-fluciclatide uptake was compared with aortic atherosclerotic burden quantified by CT plaque thickness, plaque volume and calcium scoring. Histological validation. Tissue from the aortic valve, myocardium and carotid arteries of study subjects was acquired and examined ex vivo using histology and autoradiography. Results. Aortic Stenosis. Baseline valvular 18F-fluoride uptake correlated strongly with the rate of progression in AVC (r=0.80, p < 0.001) and with haemodynamic progression (mean aortic valve gradient r=0.32, p=0.001). It emerged as independently associated with clinical outcome after age and sex-adjustment (HR 1.55 [1.33-1.81], p < 0.001). 18F-FDG demonstrated moderate correlations with disease progression as assessed by CT (r=0.43, p=0.001) and echocardiography (18F-FDG r=0.30, p=0.001), and was associated with clinical outcomes independent of age and sex (HR 1.35 [1.16-1.58], p < 0.001). Valvular 18F-fluoride uptake correlated with immunohistochemical markers of calcification activity. There was no correlation between 18F-FDG uptake and inflammation. Myocardial Infarction. 18F-Fluciclatide binding was demonstrated in ex vivo peri-infarct myocardium and uptake was increased in vivo at sites of acute infarction compared to remote myocardium (tissue-to-background ratio (TBRmean) 1.34±0.22 vs 0.85±0.17 respectively, p < 0.001) and myocardium of healthy volunteers (TBRmean 1.34±0.22 vs 0.70±0.03; p < 0.001). There was no 18F-fluciclatide uptake at sites of established prior infarction in patients with CTO, with myocardial activity similar to healthy volunteers (TBRmean 0.71±0.06 vs. 0.70±0.03,p=0.83). 18F-Fluciclatide uptake occurred at sites of regional wall hypokinesia (wall motion index ≥1 vs 0; TBRmean 0.93±0.31 vs 0.80±0.26 respectively, p < 0.001), was increased in segments displaying functional recovery (TBRmean 0.95±0.33 vs 0.81±0.27, p=0.002) and associated with increase in probability of regional recovery. Atherosclerosis. 18F-Fluciclatide vascular binding ex vivo co-localised with regions of increased αvβ3 integrin expression, and markers of inflammation and angiogenesis. 18F-Fluciclatide uptake in vivo correlated with measures of aortic atherosclerotic burden: plaque thickness (r=0.57, p=0.001), total plaque volume (r=0.56, p=0.001) and the CT aortic calcium score (r=0.37, p=0.01). Patients with recent MI had greater aortic 18F-fluciclatide uptake than those with stable disease (TBRmax 1.33 vs 1.21, p=0.01). Conclusions. In a range of cardiovascular diseases, PET-CT can provide insights into key pathophysiological processes, guide patient risk stratification and prognosis, and identify important biomarkers of disease activity that can be used for the development of future therapeutic interventions.
Supervisor: Newby, David ; Dweck, Marc Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.756529  DOI: Not available
Keywords: positron emission tomography ; cardiovascular disease ; PET/CT imaging ; calcification ; heart muscle repair ; PET scanning
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