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Title: Load balancing in hybrid LiFi and RF networks
Author: Wang, Yunlu
ISNI:       0000 0004 7429 3862
Awarding Body: University of Edinburgh
Current Institution: University of Edinburgh
Date of Award: 2018
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The increasing number of mobile devices challenges the current radio frequency (RF) networks. The conventional RF spectrum for wireless communications is saturating, motivating to develop other unexplored frequency bands. Light Fidelity (LiFi) which uses more than 300 THz of the visible light spectrum for high-speed wireless communications, is considered a promising complementary technology to its RF counterpart. LiFi enables daily lighting infrastructures, i.e. light emitting diode (LED) lamps to realise data transmission, and maintains the lighting functionality at the same time. Since LiFi mainly relies on line-of-sight (LoS) transmission, users in indoor environments may experience blockages which significantly affects users' quality of service (QoS). Therefore, hybrid LiFi and RF networks (HLRNs) where LiFi supports high data rate transmission and RF offers reliable connectivity, can provide a potential solution to future indoor wireless communications. In HLRNs, efficient load balancing (LB) schemes are critical in improving the traffic performance and network utilisation. In this thesis, the optimisation-based scheme (OBS) and the evolutionary game theory (EGT) based scheme (EGTBS) are proposed for load balancing in HLRNs. Specifically, in OBS, two algorithms, the joint optimisation algorithm (JOA) and the separate optimisation algorithm (SOA) are proposed. Analysis and simulation results show that JOA can achieve the optimal performance in terms of user data rate while requiring high computational complexity. SOA reduces the computational complexity but achieves low user data rates. EGTBS is able to achieve a better performance/complexity trade-off than OBS and other conventional load balancing schemes. In addition, the effects of handover, blockages, orientation of LiFi receivers, and user data rate requirement on the throughput of HLRNs are investigated. Moreover, the packet latency in HLRNs is also studied in this thesis. The notion of LiFi service ratio is introduced, defined as the proportion of users served by LiFi in HLRNs. The optimal LiFi service ratio to minimise system delay is mathematically derived and a low-complexity packet flow assignment scheme based on this optimum ratio is proposed. Simulation results show that the theoretical optimum of the LiFi service ratio is very close to the practical solution. Also, the proposed packet flow assignment scheme can reduce at most 90% of packet delay compared to the conventional load balancing schemes at reduced computational complexity.
Supervisor: Haas, Harald ; Ratnarajah, Tharmalingam Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: radio frequency ; RF ; hybrid network ; LiFi ; LED infrastructures ; nmWave ; indoor environment ; hybrid LiFi/RF network ; HLRN ; cross-layer load balancing