Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.756511
Title: Lipoxin A4 on neutrophil reprogramming in bronchiectasis
Author: Bedi, Pallavi
ISNI:       0000 0004 7429 3854
Awarding Body: University of Edinburgh
Current Institution: University of Edinburgh
Date of Award: 2018
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Full text unavailable from EThOS. Please try the link below.
Access from Institution:
Abstract:
Introduction: Bronchiectasis is a common chronic debilitating respiratory condition. Patients suffer daily cough, excess sputum production and recurrent chest infections because of inflamed and permanently damaged airways. The pathogenesis of bronchiectasis is poorly understood. Pulmonary pathology shows excess neutrophilic airways inflammation, but despite this over two thirds of patients are chronically infected with potential pathogenic microorganisms. The acute inflammatory response is a protective mechanism that is evolved to eliminate invading organisms and should ideally be self-limiting and lead to complete resolution. The driver for persistent neutrophilic airway inflammation in bronchiectasis is unknown, but infection is considered to play a major role. AIMS The main aims of this thesis were to: (i) Characterize neutrophils in the serum and airways in bronchiectasis in the stable state and during exacerbations; (ii) Cohort study to establish if LXA4 deficiency correlates with disease severity (iii) Characterize lipids in bronchiectasis airways and peripheral blood to establish the correlation of LXA4 to disease severity; (iv) To investigate a potential mechanism for low levels of LXA4 in bronchiectasis, lipoxin biosynthetic genes expression will be measured; (v) Assess the anti-inflammatory and pro resolution effect of LXA4 on neutrophils and monocyte derived macrophages from healthy volunteers; (vi) Assess the anti-inflammatory and pro resolution effect of LXA4 on neutrophils during exacerbations in bronchiectasis and community acquired pneumonia. Methods (I) To establish the serum neutrophil subtype in stable state and following antibiotic treatment in patients with bronchiectasis, the following studies were done. Inclusion criteria: Patients aged 18-80 were recruited. All had an established radiological diagnosis of bronchiectasis (CT of the chest). Patients had clinically significant bronchiectasis, aetiology being either idiopathic or post infection. Exclusion Criteria: current smokers or ex-smokers of less than 1 year; >20 pack year history; cystic fibrosis; active allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis; active tuberculosis; poorly controlled asthma; severe COPD requiring nebulised bronchodilators or long term oxygen therapy; patients on aspirin or leukotriene inhibitors, pregnancy or breast feeding, active malignancy. A. 6 patients with mild bronchiectasis, 6 patients with severe bronchiectasis and 6 healthy volunteers were recruited. Serum and airways neutrophils were subsequently isolated. Neutrophil apoptosis, CD11b and CD62L expression, myeloperoxidase release, superoxide generation, phagocytosis and killing of GFP labeled bacteria were assessed. B. To compare serum with airways neutrophils function, bacterial phagocytosis and killing of GFP labeled bacteria was done, with both serum and airways neutrophils. Samples were obtained from the above group of patients. C. To establish neutrophil function following antibiotic treatment, 6 bronchiectasis patients at the beginning (day1) and the end (day14) of intravenous antibiotic therapy for an exacerbation were studied. As a control group, 6 community acquired pneumonia patients at the beginning (day1) and the end (day 5) of intravenous antibiotic therapy for infection were studied. Induced sputum and peripheral blood was taken at day1 and 5, where able. Phagocytosis and killing of GFP labeled bacteria was assessed and the two groups compared. (II) To address if lipoxin A4 deficiency correlates with disease severity, a cohort study was done in bronchiectasis patients. 169 patients were recruited and followed up for 1 year. Assessments done were Bronchiectasis severity index, systemic inflammatory markers (white cell count, ESR and c-reactive protein), Forced Expired Volume in 1sec, Forced Vital Capacity and its ratio, antibiotic courses in 1 year, hospital admissions in 1 year, sputum microbiology, quality of life assessments by Leicester Cough Questionnaire and St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire, interleukin 8, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil elastase and leukotriene B4 (from sputum). (III) To assess effect of lipoxin on disease severity, 6 healthy volunteers, 10 patients with mild disease, 15 with moderate and 9 with severe disease were recruited. Disease severity was calculated as per the bronchiectasis severity index. All participants had 60mls of blood taken and underwent a bronchoscopy. Two segments of the lungs were washed out from bronchiectasis patients, an area affected by bronchiectasis and an area unaffected by bronchiectasis. This led to patients acting as their own internal control. Serum and airways neutrophils (from both segments) were subsequently isolated. Assessments done were systemic inflammatory markers (white cell count, ESR and c-reactive protein), serum lipoxin A4 and the cathelicidin LL-37, Forced Expired Volume in 1sec, Forced Vital Capacity and its ratio, transfer factor for carbon monoxide, antibiotic courses in 1 year, hospital admissions in 1 year and sputum microbiology. Phagocytosis and bacterial killing were assessed by both serum and airways neutrophils. From bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), I measured myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase. For both serum and BALF, lipidomics were obtained. (IV) To address the impact of anatomic compartment, gene expression was measured in from endobronchial brushings from the same cohort of bronchiectasis patients and controls as above, where samples were available. qPCR was performed for the following eicosanoid biosynthetic genes- 5 Lipoxygenase (LOX), 15 LO-A, 15LO-B and leukotriene (LT) A4 hydrolase. (V) To assess the anti inflammatory and pro resolution effect of LXA4 on neutrophils and monocyte derived macrophages from healthy volunteers, freshly isolated PMN will be treated with LXA4 or vehicle control. Spontaneous apoptosis was measured. fMLF and cytochalasin B was added and the inflammatory response assessed measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO), free neutrophil elastase (NE), CD11b, CD18 and CD62L. Human monocytes and PMNs were isolated from bronchiectasis patients. Following differentiation, LXA4 treated or control adherent, washed MDMs will be incubated with apoptotic stained PMNs. Efferocytosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. (VI) To establish the effect of Lipoxin A4 on neutrophil function following antibiotic treatment, the same study group used to evaluate aim 1 was taken. As a control group, 6 community acquired pneumonia patients at the beginning (day1) and the end (day 5) of oral or intravenous antibiotic therapy for infection were studied. Induced sputum and peripheral blood was taken at day1 and 5, where able. Phagocytosis and killing of GFP labeled bacteria and the effect of Lipoxin A4 was assessed and the two groups compared. Serum and sputum lipidomics were obtained in bronchiectasis exacerbations on day 1 and day 14. Serum lipidomics was obtained in pneumonia on day 1 and day 5. RESULTS (I) Neutrophil sub type study (Studied on healthy volunteers/ mild/ severe bronchiectasis) Peripheral blood neutrophils from bronchiectasis patients showed that there was significantly more viable neutrophils in mild and severe bronchiectasis compared to healthy volunteers, p=0.002 and p=0.005 respectively. In addition, there was significantly less apoptotic neutrophils in mild and severe bronchiectasis compared to healthy volunteers, p=0.0003 and p < 0.0001 respectively. There was a significantly higher level of CD11b in the mild (p=0.01) and severe bronchiectasis (p=0.01) compared to healthy volunteers. There was more CD62L shedding (p=0.02) and myeloperoxidase release (p=0.04) in bronchiectasis compared to healthy volunteers. There was lesser phagocytosis in mild (p=0.04) and severe (p=0.03) bronchiectasis compared to healthy volunteers. This led to lesser bacterial killing in mild (p=0.04) and severe (p=0.0004) bronchiectasis compared to healthy volunteers.
Supervisor: Hill, Adam ; Rossi, Adriano ; Davidson, Donald Sponsor: Medical Research Council (MRC)
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.756511  DOI: Not available
Keywords: bronchiectasis ; pathogenesis ; neutrophils ; LXA4 deficiency ; Lipoxin A4
Share: