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Title: BIM business value creation for SME architectural firms in Nigeria using intellectual capital development
Author: Kori, Sa'id
ISNI:       0000 0004 7428 4755
Awarding Body: University of Liverpool
Current Institution: University of Liverpool
Date of Award: 2017
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BIM has solidified its position in bringing efficiency to the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. However, the shift to its adoption and implementation in the emerging markets has brought distortion in both the business processes and environment for Small and Medium Enterprises (SME architectural) in the industry. This is due to their limited resources to absorb the initial costs associated with such a shift. The starting point for this study was based on exploring the potentials in the development of Intellectual Capital (IC) of the SME architectural firms. This is because, even if the ability of these firms to mobilise the resources is small, the strategic decisions regarding their orientation towards a higher level of intensity in IC elements are under their control, and that can be a major catalyst for the BIM success. As a result, the study is built on Lu and Sexton’s (2009) Theory of Innovation in Small Professional Firms. Based on this theory, BIM adoption process is approached as a Knowledge-based Innovation which occurs with the development of four IC elements; Human Capital (HC), Relationship Capital (RC) and Structure Capital (SC) through Knowledge Capital (KC) to achieve BIM Business Value Creation (BBVC). This study investigates the theoretical link between the development of these four IC elements and BBVC in SME architectural firms in emerging markets; in this case Nigeria. The aim of the research is to use this evaluation framework to develop a viable business model for management and evaluation of the IC in SME architectural firms towards BBVC. The study is designed in three stages, namely through empirical enquiry, analysis, and synthesis. The empirical enquiry comprises theory formulation and fieldwork data collection; theory formulation is achieved through proposing an evaluation framework using a systematic literature review on the four elements of IC. The evaluation framework constitutes a set of independent variables comprising thirteen components categorised under the four IC elements. Each component is defined by a set of indicators, and the proposition aims to find the relationship between these indicators and components of the IC and a dependent variable concerning the BBVC capability of SME architectural firms. The evaluation framework is used to guide the collection of fieldwork data, which involves a questionnaire survey and case study interviews with a sample of SME architectural firms in Nigeria. Using multiple regression analysis on the survey data enables an evaluation of the framework. Each component and its sets of indicators represent an independent model of regression. The outcome provides statistical evidence of the relationship between the two main variables; it also gives the Relative Weighting Value (RWV) for each indicator on the components it represents and their effects on the BBVC. The case study analysis, involving six SME architectural firms identified from the survey sample as they have relatively significant BIM capabilities, is used to triangulate the data with the survey results and provide the RWV for the components and the fours ICs. The case study analysis uses two approaches: firstly, through an exploratory study of the semi-structured interviews, which is based on themes from the 13 IC components and helps to identify the different indicators employed by firms during the BBVC. Secondly, the Eigenvector method is applied to analyse a pairwise comparison judgement where each of the components discussed in the interview is compared and their relative importance weighted. The outcome helps to establish the reliability and validity of the survey data and provide the RWV of the 13 components and four elements of the ICs. The findings indicate that there is a significant relationship between the BBVC and the development of the ICs of SME architectural firms. This development occurs through fostering the motivation and capability of Human Capital, which is the most important aspect driving BBVC. The second ranked factor is the development of the support and capability of the Structure Capital, and the motivation and network resources resulting from the Relationship Capital. The least important aspect of the development is the resource management of the Knowledge Capital. The findings also involve the identification of the different RWV of each of the 13 components under the four Capitals, and the RWV of the various sets of indicators that define the 13 components. The findings enable the synthesis of a Strategic Business Model (SBM) using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) concept. The SBM depicts the prioritisation of the IC elements, based on the following four levels; Indicator, Component, Capital and Organisation Goal. The SBM enables the practitioners to manage, prioritise and optimise their IC amidst limited resources through identification and evaluation of the focus area of development. Through a focus group with experts from the industry, the SBM is further validated practically on three criteria, namely; implementability, usefulness and generality. The feedback is used to refine the model and describe its practical implications.
Supervisor: Kiviniemi, Arto ; Kocaturk, Tuba Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: components ; evaluation ; feedback ; innovation ; reliability ; analytical hierarchy process ; case study ; focus group ; interview ; questionnaire survey ; regression analysis ; Nigeria