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Title: Electromagnetic interactions in one-dimensional metamaterials
Author: Seetharaman, Sathya Sai
ISNI:       0000 0004 7427 3079
Awarding Body: University of Exeter
Current Institution: University of Exeter
Date of Award: 2018
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Metamaterials offer the freedom to tune the rich electromagnetic coupling between the constituent meta-atoms to tailor their collective electromagnetic response. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the nature of electromagnetic interactions between meta-atoms is necessary for novel metamaterial design, which is provided in the first part of this thesis. The subsequent work in the thesis applies the understanding from the first part to design and demonstrate novel one-dimensional metamaterials that overcome the limitations of metamaterials proposed in literature or exhibit electromagnetic responses not previously observed. Split-ring Resonators (SRRs) are a fundamental building block of many electromagnetic metamaterials. In the first part of the work in this thesis, it is shown that bianisotropic SRRs (with magneto-electric cross-polarisation) when in close proximity to each other, exhibit a rich coupling that involves both electric and magnetic interactions. The strength and nature of the coupling between two identical SRRs are studied experimentally and computationally as a function of their separation and relative orientation. The electric and magnetic couplings are characterised and it is found that, when SRRs are close enough to be in each other's near-field, the electric and magnetic couplings may either reinforce each other or act in opposition. At larger separations retardation effects become important. The findings on the electromagnetic interactions between bianisotropic resonators are next applied to developing a one-dimensional ultra-wideband backward-wave metamaterial waveguide. The key concept on which the metamaterial waveguide is built is electro-inductive wave propagation, which has emerged as an attractive solution for designing backward-wave supporting metamaterials. Stacked metasurfaces etched with complementary SRRs (CSRRs) have also been shown to exhibit a broadband negative dispersion. It is demonstrated through experiment and numerical modeling, that the operational bandwidth of a CSRR metamaterial waveguide can be improved by restricting the cross-polarisation effects in the constituent meta-atoms. The metamaterial waveguide constructed using the modified non-bianisotropic CSRRs are found to have a fractional bandwidth of 56.3\% which, based on a thorough search of relevant literature, is the broadest reported value for an electro-inductive metamaterial. A traditional coupled-dipole toy-model is presented as a tool to understand the field interactions in CSRR based metamaterials, and to explain the origin of their negative dispersion response. This metamaterial waveguide should be of assistance in the design of broadband backward-wave metamaterial devices, with enhanced electro-inductive waveguiding effects. In the final part of the thesis, a one-dimensional metamaterial prototype that permits simultaneous forward- and backward-wave propagation is designed. Such a metamaterial waveguide could act as a microwave analogue of nanoparticle chains that support electromagnetic energy transfer with a positive or a negative dispersion due to the excitation of their longitudinal or transverse dipole modes. The symmetry of the designed hybrid meta-atom permits the co-existence of two non-interfering resonances closely separated in frequency. It is experimentally and computationally shown that the metamaterial waveguide supports simultaneous non-interacting forward- and backward-wave propagation in an overlapping frequency band. The proposed metamaterial design should be suitable for realising bidirectional wireless power transfer applications.
Supervisor: Barnes, William ; Hooper, Ian Sponsor: EPSRC
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Electromagnetism ; Metamaterials ; Split-ring resonators ; Periodic media ; Numerical modelling