Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: The effect of diurnal phase on performance physiology and immune system
Author: Tormey, Peter J.
ISNI:       0000 0004 7427 1444
Awarding Body: Edinburgh Napier University
Current Institution: Edinburgh Napier University
Date of Award: 2017
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Access from Institution:
The circadian cycle, although seasonally adjusted, consists of two phases: a nocturnal period of darkness and a diurnal period of light. Many parameters of human physiology display either a nocturnal or diurnal peak as seen in athletic performance, immune, endocrine, physiology and cognitive function, respectively. The studies included in this thesis focused on the diurnal (morning or AM versus evening or PM) effect of high-intensity self-paced exercise on physiological and immunological measures and the influence of individual preference for activity or chronotype on these responses. Self-paced time-trials were completed in an environmental chamber (6°C) in the AM and PM and displayed a similar effect on physiological and biological parameters. Performance times were non-statistically quicker (P > 0.05) at PM. Physiological parameters heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, lung function and self-paced treadmill speed were not found to be statistically different at AM or PM trial (p > 0.05). Core body temperature (CBT), was significantly higher (p0.05). CD8+ T-lymphocyte cell-surface markers for naïve/senescence and differentiation (CD27CD45RA and CD27CD28) reported no diurnal difference between AM and PM exercise in experienced and experienced/recreational distance runners respectively (P > 0.05). However, a higher percentage of highly differentiated phenotypes were found in the recreationally active population. Neutrophils displayed a pronounced elevation in response to PM exercise with the mechanism driving this response unclear at this time. Cortisol concentration displayed less inflammatory responses in the morning compared to the evening with higher values pre, post and one-hour post AM trials. Chronotype showed no effect on physiology or biology at rest or in response to exercise. Chapter 4 presents data from a study that investigated diurnal physiology and immune response to high-intensity exercise in highly-trained men. Recreational and experienced endurance male runners at differing diurnal time-points were investigated in Chapter 5, while individual chronotype differences and circadian phase responses were explored in Chapter 6.In summary, it is concluded from this work that there was a lack of evidence showing a diurnal effect on running performance and subsequent immune response. Elevated circulating immune counts prior to exercise, irrespective of diurnal phase, appear to govern exercise-induced responses. The effect of high intensity exercise is subject to three distinct variables: the fitness status and experience of the individual completing the exercise, the time of day at which the exercise is undertaken, and the phase response of exercise at that point of the circadian cycle. No diurnal phase mediated a divergent effect on variables examined was observed at 09.00hrs and 17.00hrs. These time-points should be considered not sufficiently dissimilar to elucidate diurnal variation in trained and healthy males.
Supervisor: Florida-James, Geraint ; Malone, Eva Sponsor: Edinburgh Napier University
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Circadian cycle ; nocturnal ; diurnal ; athletic performance ; 613 Personal health & safety ; RC1200 Sports Medicine ; Sports sciences ; Wellbeing