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Title: Simulation of turbulent flames at conditions related to IC engines
Author: Ghiasi, Golnoush
ISNI:       0000 0004 7426 464X
Awarding Body: University of Cambridge
Current Institution: University of Cambridge
Date of Award: 2018
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Engine manufacturers are constantly seeking avenues to build cleaner and more ef cient engines to meet ever increasing stringent emission legislations. This requires a closer under- standing of the in-cylinder physical and chemical processes, which can be obtained either through experiments or simulations. The advent of computational hardware, methodologies and modelling approaches in recent times make computational uid dynamics (CFD) an important and cost-effective tool for gathering required insights on the in-cylinder ow, combustion and their interactions. Traditional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods and emerging Large Eddy Simulation (LES) techniques are being used as a reli- able mathematical framework tools for the prediction of turbulent ow in such conditions. Nonetheless, the combustion submodels commonly used in combustion calculations are developed using insights and results obtained for atmospheric conditions. However, The combustion characteristics and its interaction with turbulence at Internal combustion (IC) engine conditions with, high pressure and temperatures can be quite different from those in conventional conditions and are yet to be investigated in detail. The objective here is to apply FlaRe (Flamelets revised for physical consistencies) model for IC engines conditions and assess its performance. This model was developed in earlier studies for continuous combustion systems. It is well accepted that the laminar burning velocity, SL, is an essential parameter to determine the fuel burn rate and consequently the power output and ef ciency of IC engines. Also, it is involved in almost all of the sophisticated turbulent combustion models for premixed and partially premixed charges. The burning velocities of these mixtures at temperatures of 850 ≤ T ≤ 950 decrease with pressure up to about 3 MPa as it is well known, but it starts to increase beyond this pressure. This contrasting behaviour observed for the rst time is explained and it is related to the role of pressure dependent reaction for iso-octane and involving OH and the in uence of this radical on the fuel consumption rate. The results iv seem to suggest that the overall order of the combustion reaction for iso-octane and gasoline mixture with air is larger than 2 at pressures higher than 3 MPa. The FlaRe combustion is used to simulate premixed combustion inside a spark-ignition engine. The predictive capabilities of the proposed approach and sensitivity of the model to various parameters have been studied. FlaRe approach includes a parameter βc representing the effects of ame curvature on the burning rate. Since the reactant temperature and pressure inside the cylinder are continually varying with time, the mutual in uence of ame curvature and thermo-chemical activities may be stronger in IC engines and thus this parameter is less likely to be constant. The sensitivity of engine simulation results to this parameter is investigated for a range of engine speed and load conditions. The results indicate some sensitivity and so a careful calibration of this parameter is required for URANS calculation which can be avoided using dynamic evaluations for LES. The predicted pressure variations show fair agreement with those obtained using the level-set approach. DNS data of a hydrogen air turbulent premixed ame in a rectangular constant volume vessel has been analysed to see the effect of higher pressure and temperature on the curvature parameter βc. Since the reactant temperature and pressure inside the cylinder are continually varying with time, the mutual in uence of ame curvature and thermo-chemical activities are expected to be stronger in IC engines and thus the parameter βc may not be constant. To shed more light on this, two time steps from the DNS data has been analysed using dynamic βc procedure. The results show that the effect of higher pressure and temperature need to be considered and taken into account while evaluating βc. When combustion takes place inside a closed vessel as in an IC engine the compression of the un-burnt gases by the propagating ame causes the pressure to rise. In the nal part of this thesis, the FlaRe combustion model is implemented in a commercial computational uid dynamics (CFD) code, STAR-CD, in the LES framework to study swirling combustion inside a closed vessel. Different values of βc has been tested and the need for dynamic evaluation is observed.
Supervisor: Swaminathan, Nedunchezhian Sponsor: Kacst-Cambridge Scholarship
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Combustion Modelling ; IC Engine ; Mathematical Modelling ; Computational Fluid Mechanics ; CFD ; Statistical Modelling ; Combustion Scinece