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Title: Increased energy efficiency in LTE networks through reduced early handover
Author: Kanwal, Kapil
ISNI:       0000 0004 7426 0390
Awarding Body: University of Bedfordshire
Current Institution: University of Bedfordshire
Date of Award: 2017
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Long Term Evolution (LTE) is enormously adopted by several mobile operators and has been introduced as a solution to fulfil ever-growing Users (UEs) data requirements in cellular networks. Enlarged data demands engage resource blocks over prolong time interval thus results into more dynamic power consumption at downlink in Basestation. Therefore, realisation of UEs requests come at the cost of increased power consumption which directly affects operator operational expenditures. Moreover, it also contributes in increased CO2 emissions thus leading towards Global Warming. According to research, Global Information and Communication Technology (ICT) systems consume approximately 1200 to 1800 Terawatts per hour of electricity annually. Importantly mobile communication industry is accountable for more than one third of this power consumption in ICT due to increased data requirements, number of UEs and coverage area. Applying these values to global warming, telecommunication is responsible for 0.3 to 0.4 percent of worldwide CO2 emissions. Moreover, user data volume is expected to increase by a factor of 10 every five years which results in 16 to 20 percent increase in associated energy consumption which directly effects our environment by enlarged global warming. This research work focuses on the importance of energy saving in LTE and initially propose bandwidth expansion based energy saving scheme which combines two resource blocks together to form single super RB, thereby resulting in reduced Physical Downlink Control Channel Overhead (PDCCH). Thus, decreased PDCCH overhead helps in reduced dynamic power consumption up to 28 percent. Subsequently, novel reduced early handover (REHO) based idea is proposed and combined with bandwidth expansion to form enhanced energy ii saving scheme. System level simulations are performed to investigate the performance of REHO scheme; it was found that reduced early handover provided around 35% improved energy saving while compared to LTE standard in 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) based scenario. Since there is a direct relationship between energy consumption, CO2 emissions and vendors operational expenditure (OPEX); due to reduced power consumption and increased energy efficiency, REHO subsequently proven to be a step towards greener communication with lesser CO2 footprint and reduced operational expenditure values. The main idea of REHO lies in the fact that it initiate handovers earlier and turn off freed resource blocks as compare to LTE standard. Therefore, the time difference (Transmission Time Intervals) between REHO based early handover and LTE standard handover is a key component for energy saving achieved, which is estimated through axiom of Euclidean geometry. Moreover, overall system efficiency is investigated through the analysis of numerous performance related parameters in REHO and LTE standard. This led to a key finding being made to guide the vendors about the choice of energy saving in relation to radio link failure and other important parameters.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Long Term Evolution ; REHO ; dynamic power consumption ; energy efficiency ; LTE ; G420 Networks and Communications