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Title: A multinuclear solid state nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of the preparation of Co, Pt and Ni based hydrogenation catalyst systems
Author: Clark, Joshua Patrick
ISNI:       0000 0004 7425 5903
Awarding Body: University of Warwick
Current Institution: University of Warwick
Date of Award: 2017
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It was known highly dispersed Co (HDC) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch applications could be synthesised from either Co metal or CoCO3 precursors. Both synthesis routes were known to precipitate Co oxide nanoparticles from solution onto a support via Co(III) ammine complexes. The synthesis pathway was not known. Using solid state NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) a suite of Co(III) complexes have been characterised. The HDC catalyst synthesis from Co metal produced the Co(III) complex which was identified as [(Co(NH3)3)2(μ-OH)2(μ-CO3)](CO3)∙5H2O via single crystal XRD. The 59 Co solid state NMR then confirmed the precipitant from the CoCO3 route was the same complex. The characterisation of a suite of Co(III) complexes of differing oxo coordination has been obtained. It was observed that each oxo coordinating ligand increased the NMR chemical shift by ~800 ppm. For a single oxo coordination a disparity of ~1000 ppm was also observed due to effects from the anion, crystallographic water and type of oxo coordination. Spin-spin coupling with the 59 Co nucleus was observed to occur for bidentate carbonate and ammine ligands yielded ǀ2 J( 59 Co, 13 C)ǀ of 1-10 Hz and ǀ1 J( 59 Co, 15 N)ǀ of 56-75 Hz. The bonding of monodentate and bridging carbonate ligands was observed to be ionic in nature lacking the spin-spin coupling. It was hypothesised Co oxide nanoparticles precipitated from Werner’s complex, [Co((μ-OH)2Co(NH3)4)3](SO4)3∙9H2O. This was observed in the solid state NMR studies at 14518 ppm. From the time resolved 59 Co solution state NMR measurements of the HDC catalyst syntheses a resonance was observed at 14300 ppm. This was assigned to the central Co oxo coordinated environment of Werner’s complex. In conjunction with observations of chemical shifts coinciding with known precursors to Werner’s complex, it has been possible to suggest a reaction pathway. It was concluded that [Co(NH3)5CO3]+ and [Co(NH3)4CO3]+ eventually become Werner’s complex before precipitating out of solution as Co oxide nanoparticles. The study of Pt and Ni hydrogenation catalyst precursors on α-alumina, γ-alumina, silica and titania have been undertaken. From the Pt materials, it was observed oligomeric Pt oxide structures deposited on the supports. The 195 Pt NMR measurements of these oligomeric structures showed disorder due to a mix of hydroxyl and O bridges in addition to preferential orientations. These orientations were thought to arise from the formation of sheet like structures. All measurements were compared to PtO2, the 195 Pt measurement of which produced an axial symmetric lineshape due to chemical shift anisotropy yielding a Ω of 3916(100) ppm, κ of -1.00(8) and a δiso of 4607(100) ppm. Finally, 27 Al measurements of the γ-alumina support showed reactions with nitric acid occurred. This formed an aluminium nitrate species on the surface which was removed with heat treatment. It was also concluded AlO(V) sites were preferential binding points for the Pt oxide. The AlO(V) 27 Al NMR resonance was seen to disappear with heat treatment, it has been proposed AlO(V) converts to AlO(VI) with the addition of Al–O– Pt bonds.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council ; University of Warwick
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: QC Physics ; QD Chemistry