Title:

Polynomial interpolation on a triangular region

It is well known that given f there is a unique polynomial of degree at most n which interpolates f on the standard triangle with uniform nodes (i, j), i, j ≥ 0, i + j ≤n. This leads us to the study of polynomial interpolation on a "triangular" domain with the nodes, S = {([i], [j]): i, j ≥ 0, i + j ≤n}, [k] = [k][sub]q = (1qk)/(1q), q > 0, which includes the standard triangle as a special case. In Chapter 2 of this thesis we derive a forward difference formula (of degree at most n) in the x and y directions for the interpolating polynomial P[sub]n on S. We also construct a Lagrange form of an interpolating polynomial which uses hyperbolas (although its coefficients are of degree up to 2n) and discuss a NevilleAitken algorithm. In Chapter 3 we derive the Newton formula for the interpolating polynomial P[sub]n on the set of distinct points {(xi, y[sub]j): i, j ≥ 0, i + j ≤n}. In particular if xi = [i][sub]p and y[sub]j = [j]q, we show that Newton's form of P[sub]n reduces to a forward difference formula. We show further that we can express the interpolating polynomial on S itself in a Lagrange form and although its coefficients Ln/ij are not as simple as those of the first Lagrange form, they all have degree n. Moreover, Ln/ij can all be expressed in terms of Lm/0,0, 0 ≤ m ≤ n. In Chapter 4 we show that P[sub]n has a limit when both p, q → 0. We then verify that the interpolation properties of the limit form depend on the appropriate partial derivatives of f(x, y). In Chapter 5 we study integration rules I[sub]n of interpolatory type on the triangle S[sub] = {(x, y): 0 ≤ x ≤y ≤ [n]). For 1 ≤ n ≤5, we calculate the weights wn/ij for I[sub]n in terms of the parameter q and study certain general properties which govern wn/ij on S[sub]n. Finally, Chapter 6 deals with the behaviour of the Lebesgue functions λ[sub]n(x, y; q) and the corresponding Lebesgue constant. We prove a property concerning where λ[sub]n takes the value 1 at points other than the interpolation nodes. We also analyse the discontinuity of the directional derivative of λ[sub]n on S[sub]n.
