Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Novel biocidal formulation
Author: Wills, Peter
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2013
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Access from Institution:
In this modern age, society has become much more aware of the danger bacteria can have on people's health. Personal and household antimicrobial formulations are commonly used within the home to lower the levels of harmful bacteria such as E. Coli, Salmonella and Pseudomonas. The active which kills the bacteria within the formulation is described as a biocide. This research looks at the often neglected potential of cationic polyelectrolyte as a biocide, firstly within solution and secondly in creating an antimicrobial surface. The solution properties and antimicrobial activity for a range of commercially available cationic polyelectrolytes (polymeric quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) and biguanides) of differing molecular weights were investigated. All polyelectrolytes were observed to have some level of antimicrobial activity. The second phase of this research investigated polyelectrolyte/surfactant/water mixture of similar charge (cationic). Two QAC surfactants were investigated: Alkyl (C12 70%; C14 30%) dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (BAC) and Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDQ). At a critical concentration, these mixtures segregatively phase separate into a surfactant rich upper phase and polyelectrolyte rich lower phase. This phase separation phenomenon was investigated in respect of surfactant and polyelectrolyte type as well as polyelectrolyte molecular weight. Surfactant type was observed to be the dominant factor in determining the onset of phase separation and by mixing different ratios of surfactants the ability to tune this phase separation concentration was shown. Dilute solutions of these mixtures well below their respective phase separation concentration were then deposited onto glass substrates via a drop cast or inkjet printer method. The surfactant/polyelectrolyte film composites left after drop evaporation ranged from an amorphous film to nodular like structures. The ability to order/structure actives onto a surface could alter active adhesion and surface roughness properties of the film. This change in surface property could consequently affect antimicrobial performance.
Supervisor: Yeates, Stephen Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Segregative Phase Separation ; Poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium) chloride ; Poly(hexamethylene biguanide) chloride