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Title: Antibiotic resistant Gram-negative bacteria in long-term care facilities : an epidemiological and dynamic modelling study
Author: Rosello Gilchrist, A.
ISNI:       0000 0004 7231 9977
Awarding Body: UCL (University College London)
Current Institution: University College London (University of London)
Date of Award: 2018
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Tackling antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a national and global priority. Despite this, much of our understanding of the epidemiology and transmission of AMR outside the hospital, and thus, how we might control it, remains limited. Long term care facilities (LTCFs) play an important role in the care of older people. However, there have been few studies of the epidemiology and transmission of AMR in this setting. LTCF residents present with frequent co-morbidities which increase their risk of hospitalisation and of AMR infection. LTCFs also offer opportunities for transmission of AMR strains due to the long lengths of stay of residents and the lack of strictly applied infection control measures. This thesis focuses on urinary tract infections (UTIs), one of the most common bacterial infections in LTCFs, hospitals and the community. I first present a systematic review of mathematical models of infectious disease transmission set in LTCFs and a critical review of mathematical models evaluating interventions against AMR bacteria in LTCFs. A checklist for good quality models in this area is proposed. Next, using data from routinely collected microbiology samples, the frequency of AMR in urinary tract E. coli and Klebsiella was compared in LTCF residents with that in older people living in their own homes. Residents of LTCFs had more than four times the rate of E. coli and Klebsiella UTI caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria compared with those living in the community. The seasonality of UTI consultations was also assessed. A September to November peak in UTI consultation incidence was observed for ages 14-69. This seasonality progressively faded in older age groups and no seasonality was found in individuals aged 85 and over. Finally, a stochastic compartmental mathematical model was developed to explore the transmission of trimethoprim-resistant E. coli in LTCFs. Different treatment, importation and transmission scenarios were addressed.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available