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Title: Application of Energy Dispersive X-Ray Diffraction (EDXRD) in the detection of fat nodules in liver disease and plaques in the blood vessels of the heart
Author: Abuchi, Chukwuneke Sid
ISNI:       0000 0004 7230 1881
Awarding Body: UCl (University College London)
Current Institution: University College London (University of London)
Date of Award: 2018
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Fat deposits in tissue or organs are a major health problem. Assessment of fat nodules in the liver (particularly prior to a liver transplant) or plaques in coronary arteries are important investigations that are undertaken in hospitals throughout the world. Many of the current techniques for investigation, e.g., computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA), lead to high radiation doses or carry significant risks (catheter angiography) and hence new, quantitative tests are required. This thesis looks at using localised X-ray diffraction measurements as an alternative approach to quantifying the fat content of blood vessels or liver tissue. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) has been used to study the diffraction profiles of specially designed tissue phantoms. Phantoms have been built to represent a fatty-liver and a diseased heart where the size of the fatty inclusion can be varied. Combinations of tissue equivalent materials and real tissues have been used in each phantom. Diffraction profiles have been measured on these phantoms for a range of fat inclusions. All measurements were made on a fixed geometry diffractometer using a nominal scattering angle of 60 , a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector system and a tungsten target X-ray source. The diffraction data has been subjected to different analysis procedures. The results on the phantoms have shown that the minimum detectable levels of fat inclusions are clinically relevant. These results have then been used to scale up the measured diffraction data to patient-sized objects. Although these estimates demonstrate that doses need to be increased they also indicate that useful clinical data could be obtained at acceptable dose levels.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available