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Title: Squatter upgrading in Zambia : adequacy of the institutional framework
Author: Lungu, Alice
ISNI:       0000 0004 7232 3212
Awarding Body: Heriot-Watt University
Current Institution: Heriot-Watt University
Date of Award: 2016
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The Government of Zambia plans to become a prosperous middle-income country by 2030. Therefore, it has announced intentions to upgrade squatter settlements to improve the living conditions of the urban poor, and enable them to participate in the vision. However, without a squatter upgrading framework in place, the research assumed government would use the existing Lusaka Squatter Upgrading Project (LSUP) framework. Hence, this research titled Squatter Upgrading in Zambia: Adequacy of the Institutional Framework, undertook to examine the extent to which the existing institutional framework was adequate for initiating and supporting squatter upgrading. The research draws on an analysis of data gathered from in-depth interviews with 102 participants (including central and local governments, NGOs, financial institutions, and squatter residents) observations and documentary review. The research has traced the close links between governance – in the form of the historical legacy of colonialism, post-colonial socialist housing policies and power dynamics between central and local government - and the growth of informal housing within Zambia. Further, it has shown that the culture of clientelism is a major barrier to future efforts to upgrade squatter settlements. While this study took place in Zambia, it is likely that similar links between governance and the growth of squatter settlements are likely to be found in many other Sub-Saharan countries. Similarly, the clear links between the critical success factors that relate to governance and the likely effectiveness of efforts to improve living conditions in squatter settlements are likely to be borne out in other sub-Saharan contexts. Moreover, the research revealed the importance of power dynamics between local and central governments. The research has shown how central government wrestles power from local councils through fiscal and administrative manipulations using the very law that created them as autonomous entities. Additionally, this research has expanded the definition of the urban housing situation to include the quality, tenure, and spatial location aspects. Finally, the research confirmed existing literature regarding the importance of tenure security in influencing investment decisions in housing improvements. It established that as long as squatters gained the assurance of being ‘safe’ from eviction, they made decisions to improve their houses.
Supervisor: Bramley, Glen ; Netto, Gina Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available