Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Old-age hippocampal sclerosis in the aged population
Author: Hokkanen, Suvi Rosa Kastehelmi
ISNI:       0000 0004 7229 8782
Awarding Body: University of Cambridge
Current Institution: University of Cambridge
Date of Award: 2018
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Full text unavailable from EThOS. Restricted access.
Access from Institution:
Old-age hippocampal sclerosis (HS), characterised by severe neuron loss in hippocampal CA1, is a poorly understood cause of dementia. At present no objective pathological HS criteria exist. In life HS is commonly diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease. HS aetiology is unclear, although it has been associated with both ischaemia and TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43)-related neurodegeneration. Variations in genes GRN, TMEM106B and ABCC9 are proposed as HS risk factors. The aim of this thesis was to investigate epidemiological, clinical, pathological and genetic characteristics of HS in older European populations. 976 brains donated for the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort, the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study and the Finnish Vantaa 85+ study were available for evaluation -including bilateral hippocampi from 302 individuals. A protocol capturing the extent and severity of hippocampal neuron loss was developed, establishing objective HS diagnosis criteria and allowing observation of distinct neuron loss patterns associated with ischaemia and neurodegeneration. 71 HS cases (overall prevalence: 7.3%) were identified. HS was significantly associated with an advanced age at death as well as dementia at the end of life. Neuropsychological and cardiovascular characteristics were similar between HS and AD, except for a longer duration of dementia and more disability in HS. HS was not associated with neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid plaques, or vascular pathologies, but all HS cases evaluated for TDP-43 showed neuronal inclusions in the hippocampal dentate and a high frequency of other glial, neuronal and neurite TDP-43 pathologies. GRN and TMEM106B but not ABCC9 variations were linked to HS. A moderating effect of TDP-43 on this association was detected. HS presented pathologically similarly to frontotemporal dementia cases with TDP-43 (FTLD-TDP) caused by mutations in GRN, but differed from other FTLD-TDP subtypes. Results of this thesis reveal the importance of HS in the oldest old in the population, the key role of TDP-43, as well as providing robust methods to capture HS characteristics for an area that has been under-researched but is clearly vital to understanding dementia in the oldest old.
Supervisor: Brayne, Carol ; Polvikoski, Tuomo Sponsor: Alzheimer's Research UK
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: neuropathology ; hippocampal sclerosis ; TDP-43 ; population study ; hippocampus ; neuron loss