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Title: Installed jet noise
Author: Lyu, Benshuai
ISNI:       0000 0004 7227 2187
Awarding Body: University of Cambridge
Current Institution: University of Cambridge
Date of Award: 2018
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This thesis studies the prediction and reduction of installed jet noise, combining both analytical and experimental techniques. In the prediction part, it starts with formulating a low-order but robust isolated jet noise prediction model, based on which a remarkably fast code with pre-informed data is developed. A semi-empirical low-order model is then developed to predict installed jet noise. The model consists of two parts, the first of which is based on the Lighthill's acoustic analogy theory. The second part embraces Amiet's approach to model the sound due to the scattering of jet instability waves. It is shown that the significant low-frequency noise enhancement observed in installed jet experiments is due to the scattering of near-field instability waves. The trailing edge scattering model can successfully predict noise spectra at all distinct angles. The quadrupole-induced high-frequency sound is either efficiently shielded at $90^\circ$ to the jet axis on the shielded side or enhanced by around $3$ dB at $90^\circ$ on the reflected side. But these effects gradually diminish as the observer angle decreases. The high-frequency spectra can be robustly predicted at large observer angles while deviation occurs at low observer angles due to jet refraction effects. An experimental study on installed jet noise is then conducted. The effects of plate positions and Mach numbers are studied. Excellent agreement between the experimental results and model predictions is achieved at low frequencies for all plate positions and Mach numbers tested. At high frequencies, the noise spectra at $90^\circ$ on the reflected side can also be correctly predicted. At lower observer angles, deviations occur due to jet refraction effects. In the noise reduction part, an experimental study is firstly carried out to study the effects of lobed nozzles on installed jet noise at constant flow rates. It is found that lobed nozzles do not noticeably change the installed jet noise spectra at low frequencies. However, they do result in a slight noise reduction at high frequencies. To understand why lobed nozzles hardly change low-frequency installed jet noise, an analytical stability analysis for lobed vortex sheets is performed. The results show that lobed jets change both the convection velocity and the temporal growth rate of instability waves. The changes become more pronounced as the number of lobes $N$ and the penetration ratio $\epsilon$ increase. A second set of experiments is carried out to explore the possibility of reducing installed jet noise by using two pylons. The results show that even in the most conservative case installed jet noise is reduced by around $2\sim3$ dB at low frequencies. It is concluded that using two pylons to reduce installed jet noise has significant practical potential.
Supervisor: Dowling, Ann Sponsor: Cambridge Trust ; China Scholarship Council
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Jet noise ; Jet installation effects ; Scattering ; Jet instability waves