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Title: An exploration of the practice of prescribing and use of medicines, with a special focus on self-medication practices in the context of developing reform within the health care system in Kurdistan-Iraq
Author: Aziz, Omer
ISNI:       0000 0004 7225 4456
Awarding Body: De Montfort University
Current Institution: De Montfort University
Date of Award: 2017
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This research has been undertaken to evaluate factors with an association with the practice of self-medication amongst respondents living within three cities within Kurdistan. The research was designed to be a cross-sectional one by arranging for data collection through the direct interviewing of respondents via the use of a questionnaire that had been prepared previously. In total, the investigation involved 627 pharmacist participants, 647 general participants, and 28 interviewees from various age groups. An explanatory design is a mixed methods approach with two phases, with quantitative data collection in the first phase, and qualitative data collection in a second; data collection was conducted using a non-probability convenience sampling technique. The primary reason for self-medication practice was that participants with previous experience of attending to the same disease. The information source regarding self-medicated drugs were previous prescriptions, community pharmacies and friends. The most common indication for self-medication was the common cold or fever/headache/infection, the drugs used to treat these conditions being most commonly antibiotics, then painkillers and preparations for coughs. From the general public, a sample of 647 participants was taken that consisted of 38.4% females and 61.6% males, with participant ages ranging from 18-70 years. Within the study, 12.4% of the cohort had a degree level of education from a university. Moreover, 243 participants had the belief that it was an acceptable practice to purchase antibiotics without a prescription. Self-medication was practiced by 14/28 of the interviewees, and 28/28 (100%) of the interviewees held the belief that the pharmacy always has someone with knowledge of medicines, and who can advise and provide medication. There were 627 pharmacist participants, of which 28.1% were female and 71.9% were male, and 57.2% of them holding a Diploma in Health Institution, and 39.2% of them having a Bachelors Pharmacy degree. 20.7% of participants disagreed with keeping records for the dispensing of drugs, and approximately 20% of participants had little or no ideas regarding the characteristics of pharmacy practice that are considered professional. It was discovered that, if asked by the customer, advice was provided by 82.5% of community pharmacists. The sale of antibiotics was the most common, followed by pain-killers. A 95.5% proportion of pharmacists sold all of the medicines as OTC medicine without prescription. In conclusion, medicines are used by the people of Kurdistan in an inventive way, with suggestions provided by lay people and members of family or friends, which is acted upon without a qualified healthcare professional being consulted.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Self-care ; Self-medication ; Self-medication determinants ; Self-medication information sources ; Treatment of the symptoms of illness by self-medication ; Antibiotics ; Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug/analgesic self-medication ; Importance of the practice of self-medication ; Problems with self-medication ; The role played by community pharmacies and pharmacy professionals ; The role that drug consumers play in self-medication ; Over the counter (OTC) medicines and Legal controls