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Title: Synthesis of substituted azetidines and spirocyclic diazetidines
Author: Pancholi, Alpa Kishor
ISNI:       0000 0004 7227 8343
Awarding Body: University of Warwick
Current Institution: University of Warwick
Date of Award: 2017
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Chapter 1 begins with an introduction to azetidines, including a discussion of the methodologies for their synthesis, their applications, relevance in natural products and as building blocks in medicinal chemistry. It then describes the development of a new asymmetric route to 2-substituted azetidin-3-ones using Enders’ SAMP/RAMP auxiliary. A one-pot process was developed involving the metalation of SAMP hydrazones of N-Boc-azetidin-3-one, alkylation and subsequent in situ hydrolysis to give the substituted products. Various bases and reaction conditions were explored to find optimal conditions for maximal yield and enantioselectivity. A representative range of electrophiles were screened including alkyl, allyl and benzyl halides and carbonyl compounds, producing enantioselectivities of up to 85% ee. Multiple substitution on the azetidin-3-one ring was briefly explored by repetition of the alkylation/hydrolysis sequence. Derivitisation by way of Pictet-Spengler reactions was used to confirm the absolute configuration at the newly created stereocentre. Chapter 2 begins with an introduction to 1,2-diazetidines outlining methods for their synthesis, before introducing the relevance of these nitrogen spirocycles. This chapter then describes two routes for the synthesis of these novel spirocyclic 1,2- diazetidines by (i) formation of the diazetidine ring and (ii) functionalisation of a range of 3-methylene-1,2-diazetidines including differentially protected variants. The diazetidines were subjected to dichloro- and difluorocyclopropanation with the latter achieved in high yields. Additionally, reactions with tetracyanoethylene by way of highly asynchronous [2π+2π] cycloadditions proceeded in near quantitative yield. In this way, a range of novel 4,5-diazaspiro[2.3]hexane and 1,2- diazaspiro[3.3]heptane spirocycles were produced. Chapter 3 details the experimental procedure and characterisation for all the novel compounds synthesised.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: QD Chemistry ; RS Pharmacy and materia medica