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Title: The role of imaging in advancing the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and staging of central chondroid bone tumours
Author: Douis, Hassan
ISNI:       0000 0004 7227 7391
Awarding Body: University of Warwick
Current Institution: University of Warwick
Date of Award: 2017
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Abstract:
Central chondroid bone tumours are one of the most common primary bone tumours. Benign central chondroid tumours are termed enchondromas and its malignant counterpart are called chondrosarcomas. Enchondromas are frequently observed on routine imaging. Similarly, chondrosarcomas are the second most common primary bone tumour after osteosarcoma. Imaging is crucial in the diagnosis of central chondroid tumours and in the differentiation of enchondromas from chondrosarcomas. Furthermore, imaging plays a vital role in the staging of chondrosarcomas. In this thesis, the published scientific literature on the role of imaging in the diagnosis of benign chondroid tumours and chondrosarcomas and the role of imaging in the staging of chondrosarcomas is reviewed and summarised. Furthermore, the contribution of the authors’ published work is highlighted in the thesis. The first two articles are review articles which discuss the clinical and imaging features of benign and malignant chondrogenic tumours and the significance of imaging in the diagnosis of these tumours. The third article is an original article which investigates the theory of the pathogenesis of enchondromas. It is widely believed that enchondromas arise from cartilage islands which are displaced from the growth plate during the process of skeletal maturation. However, this theory is unproven, and the origin of this theory was forgotten prior to the authors’ study. Based on the incidental prevalence of enchondromas of the knee in the adult population of 2.9%, the study assesses the prevalence of cartilage islands/enchondromas in skeletally immature patients. In this study, no cartilage islands/enchondromas in skeletally immature patients were identified. The study therefore shows the rarity of enchondromas in skeletally immature individuals which is in contrast to the adult population. Furthermore, in view of the absence of cartilage islands in this study, the study raises doubts about the validity of the unproven theory. Lastly, the very origin of this theory is rediscovered in this thesis which has been forgotten in modern medicine. The fourth article is an original article which evaluates the role of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) in the diagnosis of central cartilage tumours. Prior to the authors’ study the role of DWI in the diagnosis of central cartilage tumours was uncertain. The authors’ study demonstrates that DWI cannot be used to differentiate between enchondromas and chondrosarcomas and that DWI does not aid in the distinction of low-grade chondroid tumours from high-grade chondrosarcomas. This is a finding which was not known prior to the study. The fifth article is an original article which assesses the utility of conventional MRI in the differentiation of low-grade from high-grade chondrosarcomas of long bone. Prior to the authors’ study the role of conventional MRI in the differentiation of low- grade from high-grade chondrosarcomas of long bone was unknown. The authors’ study shows that bone expansion, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length can be used to differentiate high-grade from low-grade chondral lesions of long bone on conventional MRI. Furthermore, the presence of these four MRI features shows a diagnostic accuracy of 95.6%. These findings were not known prior to the study and have significantly furthered the knowledge about the role of conventional MRI in the grading of chondrosarcoma of long bone. The sixth article is an original article which evaluates the role of bone scintigraphy and Computed Tomography of the chest in the staging of chondrosarcoma of bone. Whilst guidelines regarding the staging of bone sarcomas state that bone scintigraphy should be performed to assess for the presence of skeletal metastases and that Computed Tomography (CT) of the chest should be performed to evaluate for possible pulmonary metastases, there has been no research on the utility of bone scintigraphy in chondrosarcoma of bone and on the role of CT-chest in the staging of chondrosarcomas. Furthermore, the prevalence of skeletal and pulmonary metastases of chondrosarcoma at presentation was unknown prior to this study. The authors’ study demonstrated no skeletal metastases on bone scintigraphy in chondrosarcoma of bone at presentation. In contrast, pulmonary metastases were observed in approximately 5% of all patients with chondrosarcoma at presentation on CT-chest. The finding therefore demonstrates the rarity of skeletal metastases in chondrosarcoma of bone at presentation which is in contrast to osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. The study therefore concludes that there is little role for skeletal scintigraphy in the surgical staging of chondrosarcoma. In contrast, the study shows that there is a role for CT-chest in the staging of chondrosarcoma. These above described findings are important new findings and represent a significant contribution to the knowledge base regarding metastatic behaviour of chondrosarcomas at presentation and regarding the staging of chondrosarcoma of bone. In summary, the authors’ publications have significantly enhanced and furthered the understanding of the pathogenesis of enchondromas, the role of functional MRI in the differentiation of enchondromas from chondrosarcomas, the utility of MRI in the grading of chondrosarcomas and the role of skeletal scintigraphy in the staging of chondrosarcomas.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.742234  DOI: Not available
Keywords: RC0254 Neoplasms. Tumors. Oncology (including Cancer)
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