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Title: Effects of the weld thermal cycle on the microstructure of alloy 690
Author: Tuttle, James R.
Awarding Body: Sheffield Hallam University
Current Institution: Sheffield Hallam University
Date of Award: 1997
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Alloy 690 has been introduced as a material for use as the heat exchanger tubes in the steam generators (SGs) of pressurised water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant. Its immediate predecessor, alloy 600, suffered from a number of degradation modes and another alternative, alloy 800, has also had in-service problems. In laboratory tests, alloy 690 in both mill annealed (MA) and special thermally treated (STT) condition has shown a high degree of resistance to degradation in simulated PWR primary side environments and other test media. Limited research has previously been undertaken to investigate the effects of welding on alloy 690, when the material is used in SG applications. It was deemed important to increase knowledge in this area since fabrication of PWR SGs involves gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) of the heat exchanger tubes to a clad tubeplate. For this research investigation welded samples of alloy 690 have been produced in the laboratory using a range of thermal cycles based around recommended weld parameters for SG fabrication. These samples have been compared with archive welds from PWR SG manufacturers. A number of welds incorporating alloy 600 and a number using alloy 800 tubing material have also been fabricated in the laboratory for comparative purposes. Two experimental melts have been produced to study the effects of Nb substitution for Ti in alloy 690 type materials. Welded and unwelded specimens have been studied, analysed and tested using a variety of methods and techniques. A method of metallographic sample preparation for transmission electron microscope (TEM) thin foil specimens has been developed and documented which ensures foil perforation in a specific region. The effects of Nb substitution for Ti have been discussed. Chemical balances and microstructures in the fusion zone of welds manufactured from alloy 690 tubing incorporating alloy 82 weld consumable have been shown to be non-ideal. Within the heat affected zone (HAZ) of both laboratory produced and archive welds the microstructures have been identified as detrimentally altered from the STT condition original tubing material(s). A number of conclusions have been drawn and recommendations have been made for future work.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available