Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.740287
Title: The effect of chemical segregation on phase transformations and mechanical behaviour in a TRIP-assisted dual phase steel
Author: Ennis, Bernard
ISNI:       0000 0004 7225 2450
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2017
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Abstract:
In the drive towards higher strength alloys, a diverse range of alloying elements is employed to enhance their strength and ductility. Limited solid solubility of these elements in steel leads to segregation during casting which affects the entire down-stream processing and eventually the mechanical properties of the finished product. The work presented in this PhD shows that segregation of alloying elements during casting, particularly aluminium, leads directly to banding in the final product. It has been demonstrated that no significant homogenisation is possible in this alloy within practical time constraints of the industrial thermo-mechanical process. A through-process model was developed to design a thermo-mechanical treatment aimed at reducing the effects of segregation on the formation of banding. A new polynomial function for calculating the local phase transformation temperature (Ae3) between the austenite + ferrite and the fully austenitic phase fields during heating and cooling of steel is presented. Material was produced both with and without banding and used to study the effect upon the mechanical properties. The banded steel variants show a significant reduction in tensile strength for a similar level of ductility compared to non-banded variants. In situ measurement under uniaxial loading using high-energy synchrotron diffraction allowed direct quantification of the impact of the mechanically induced transformation of metastable austenite on the work- hardening behaviour. The results reveal that the mechanically induced transformation of austenite does not begin until the onset of matrix yielding and the experimental evidence demonstrates that the austenite to martensite transformation increases the work-hardening rate of the ferrite phase and delays the onset of Stage-III hardening until the yield point of austenite. The increase in work-hardening rate (and thus work required) supports a driving force approach to transformation induced plasticity. The transformation work required leads to an increase in the macroscopic work-hardening rate after matrix yielding which offsets the decrease in the work-hardening rate in the ferrite and martensite phases up to the UTS. Steels with a high degree of banding do not show this extra contribution due to the more dominant anisotropic effect of martensite bands on the work-hardening of ferrite coupled to increased mechanical austenite stability as a result of increased carbon content. A list of revisions as requested by the examiners is produced on pages 18 and 19 of the thesis for examination. Abstract: In the drive towards higher strength alloys, a diverse range of alloying elements is employed to enhance their strength and ductility. Limited solid solubility of these elements in steel leads to segregation during casting which affects the entire down-stream processing and eventually the mechanical properties of the finished product. The work presented in this PhD shows that segregation of alloying elements during casting, particularly aluminium, leads directly to banding in the final product. It has been demonstrated that no significant homogenisation is possible in this alloy within practical time constraints of the industrial thermo-mechanical process. A through-process model was developed to design a thermo-mechanical treatment aimed at reducing the effects of segregation on the formation of banding. A new polynomial function for calculating the local phase transformation temperature (Ae3) between the austenite + ferrite and the fully austenitic phase fields during heating and cooling of steel is presented. Material was produced both with and without banding and used to study the effect upon the mechanical properties. The banded steel variants show a significant reduction in tensile strength for a similar level of ductility compared to non-banded variants. In situ measurement under uniaxial loading using high-energy synchrotron diffraction allowed direct quantification of the impact of the mechanically induced transformation of metastable austenite on the work- hardening behaviour. The results reveal that the mechanically induced transformation of austenite does not begin until the onset of matrix yielding and the experimental evidence demonstrates that the austenite to martensite transformation increases the work-hardening rate of the ferrite phase and delays the onset of Stage-III hardening until the yield point of austenite. The increase in work-hardening rate (and thus work required) supports a driving force approach to transformation induced plasticity. The transformation work required leads to an increase in the macroscopic work-hardening rate after matrix yielding which offsets the decrease in the work-hardening rate in the ferrite and martensite phases up to the UTS. Steels with a high degree of banding do not show this extra contribution due to the more dominant anisotropic effect of martensite bands on the work-hardening of ferrite coupled to increased mechanical austenite stability as a result of increased carbon content.
Supervisor: Lee, Peter ; Jimenez-Melero, Enrique Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.740287  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Through-process modelling ; Synchrotron x-ray diffraction ; Mechanical testing ; Phase transformations ; Crystal plasticity ; Materials characterisation ; Chemical segregation ; Steel ; Thermo-mechanical processing
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