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Title: A novel power management and control design framework for resilient operation of microgrids
Author: Alkhafaji, Mohammed H.
ISNI:       0000 0004 7231 4615
Awarding Body: Cranfield University
Current Institution: Cranfield University
Date of Award: 2017
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This thesis concerns the investigation of the integration of the microgrid, a form of future electric grids, with renewable energy sources, and electric vehicles. It presents an innovative modular tri-level hierarchical management and control design framework for the future grid as a radical departure from the ‘centralised’ paradigm in conventional systems, by capturing and exploiting the unique characteristics of a host of new actors in the energy arena - renewable energy sources, storage systems and electric vehicles. The formulation of the tri-level hierarchical management and control design framework involves a new perspective on the problem description of the power management of EVs within a microgrid, with the consideration of, among others, the bi-directional energy flow between storage and renewable sources. The chronological structure of the tri-level hierarchical management operation facilitates a modular power management and control framework from three levels: Microgrid Operator (MGO), Charging Station Operator (CSO), and Electric Vehicle Operator (EVO). At the top level is the MGO that handles long-term decisions of balancing the power flow between the Distributed Generators (DGs) and the electrical demand for a restructure realistic microgrid model. Optimal scheduling operation of the DGs and EVs is used within the MGO to minimise the total combined operating and emission costs of a hybrid microgrid including the unit commitment strategy. The results have convincingly revealed that discharging EVs could reduce the total cost of the microgrid operation. At the middle level is the CSO that manages medium-term decisions of centralising the operation of aggregated EVs connected to the bus-bar of the microgrid. An energy management concept of charging or discharging the power of EVs in different situations includes the impacts of frequency and voltage deviation on the system, which is developed upon the MGO model above. Comprehensive case studies show that the EVs can act as a regulator of the microgrid, and can control their participating role by discharging active or reactive power in mitigating frequency and/or voltage deviations. Finally, at the low level is the EVO that handles the short-term decisions of decentralising the functioning of an EV and essential power interfacing circuitry, as well as the generation of low-level switching functions. EVO level is a novel Power and Energy Management System (PEMS), which is further structured into three modular, hierarchical processes: Energy Management Shell (EMS), Power Management Shell (PMS), and Power Electronic Shell (PES). The shells operate chronologically with a different object and a different period term. Controlling the power electronics interfacing circuitry is an essential part of the integration of EVs into the microgrid within the EMS. A modified, multi-level, H-bridge cascade inverter without the use of a main (bulky) inductor is proposed to achieve good performance, high power density, and high efficiency. The proposed inverter can operate with multiple energy resources connected in series to create a synergized energy system. In addition, the integration of EVs into a simulated microgrid environment via a modified multi-level architecture with a novel method of Space Vector Modulation (SVM) by the PES is implemented and validated experimentally. The results from the SVM implementation demonstrate a viable alternative switching scheme for high-performance inverters in EV applications. The comprehensive simulation results from the MGO and CSO models, together with the experimental results at the EVO level, not only validate the distinctive functionality of each layer within a novel synergy to harness multiple energy resources, but also serve to provide compelling evidence for the potential of the proposed energy management and control framework in the design of future electric grids. The design framework provides an essential design to for grid modernisation.
Supervisor: Luk, Patrick Chi Kwong ; Economou, John Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available