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Title: An examination of the bioactive lipids involved in skin cell inflammation and in response to ultraviolet radiation : effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on red blood cell and human dermal fatty acid and production of eicosanoids by HaCaT keratinocytes and 46BR.1N fibroblasts following exposure to UVR
Author: Al-Aasswad, Naser M. I.
Awarding Body: University of Bradford
Current Institution: University of Bradford
Date of Award: 2013
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Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in solar light is important for skin biology. It is involved in the development acute and chronic skin inflammation, aging and cancer, causing erythema, tanning and local or systemic immunosuppression. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are considered anti- inflammatory and could reduce the damage caused by overexposure to UVR. Although, n-3 PUFA have been considered as photoprotective agents, their exact mechanisms of action is not completely understood. The aim of the work is to determine the effect of UVR and the n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on human skin cells (in vitro study), specifically on: cell viability, apoptosis and their metabolism through the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. Also, to study the cellular incorporation and effect of n-3 PUFA on the fatty acid profile of skin cells. A clinical study was undertaken to assess the incorporation of n-3 PUFA supplements in human skin. A clinical study was performed in 40 healthy women (active group) supplemented with 4g/day of EPA (70%) and DHA (10%) and 40 healthy women (placebo group) supplemented with 4g/day of glyceryl tricoprylate coprate (GTCC). After 3 months, both blood samples and skin punch biopsies were collected and analysed for fatty acids by gas chromatography (GC). HaCaT keratinocytes and 46BR.1N fibroblasts were cultured and treated with 10 and 50μM of either EPA, or DHA or oleic acid (OA) for 72h and exposed to 15 and 50 mJ/cm2. Cell viability was measured by the MTT assay and cell apoptosis by a colorimetric method, at 24h post UVR. Cells and culture media were analysed by GC and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) to assess cellular fatty acids and production of eicosanoids. The clinical a study showed that in RBC saturated fatty acids (SFA) (44.27±7.43%) were the main fatty acid group followed by n-6 PUFA (29.61±5.53%). While in dermal tissue monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (58.90±9.80%) was the main fatty acid group followed by SFA (27.06±6.78%). A significant increase in EPA, DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) was observed in RBC but only EPA was significantly increased in the dermis post n-3 PUFA supplementation. . The viability of HaCaT keratinocytes and 46BR.1N fibroblasts decreased post UVR and this was further reduced post PUFA treatment. Cell apoptosis increased when cells were exposed to UVR and further increased when cells were treated with EPA and DHA. . In HaCaT keratinocytes MUFA (54.22±8.82%) was the main fatty acid group followed by FAS (37.11±.9.16%), while SFA (51.94±8.68%) was the main group followed by MUFA (27.07±4.79) in 46BR.1N. Treated both cells with EPA and DHA showed significant increased in cellular EPA, DPA and DHA. 46BR.1N fibroblasts produced higher levels of prostaglandins (PG) compared to HaCaT keratinocytes: PGE2 and PGD2 were the main PG in both HaCaT (7.96±3.18 and 1.48±1.19 pg/million cell; respectively) and 46BR.1N with (44.2±23.00 and 17.1±9.71 pg/million cell; respectively). Significant increase in PGE1 and PGE2 occurred when cells were exposed to 15mJ/cm2 UVR. Treatment with n-3 PUFA decreased the level of PGE1 and PGE2, and increase production PGE3 at the baseline and post UVR. Both cell lines produced hydroxy fatty acids and the concentration of these mediators was higher in 46BR.1N than HaCaT. The concentrations of these mediators were significant increased post UVR: treatment with n-3 PUFA decreased the level of HODE and HETE, and increase production of HEPE and HDHA at baseline and post UVR. Overall, n-3PUFA treatment led to increases in the content of EPA and DHA on RBC, dermal tissue and human skin cell lines. EPA and DHA in skin cell lines appear to offer protection by increasing cellular apoptosis, decreasing inflammatory mediators specifically PGE2 and 12-HETE, and increasing anti-inflammatory mediators such as PGE3, 15-HEPE and 17-HDHA.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Eicosapentaenoic acid ; Docosahexaenoic acid ; Oleic acid ; Eicosanoids ; Cyclooxygenase ; Lipoxygenase ; HaCaT keratinocytes ; 46BR.1N fibroblasts ; Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry ; Ultraviolet radiation ; Human skin ; Dermal tissue ; Inflammation ; Inflamatory mediators