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Title: Digital beamforming techniques for passive UHF RFID tag localization
Author: Cremer, Markus
ISNI:       0000 0004 6497 3338
Awarding Body: London South Bank University
Current Institution: London South Bank University
Date of Award: 2016
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Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology is on the way to substitute traditional bar codes in many fields of application. Especially the availability of passive ultra-high frequency (UHF) RFID transponders (or tags) in the frequency band between 860 MHz and 960 MHz has fostered the global application in supply chain management. However, the full potential of these systems will only be exploited if the identification of objects is complemented by accurate and robust localization. Passive UHF RFID tags are cost-effective, very small, extremely lightweight, maintenancefree, rugged and can be produced as adhesive labels that can be attached to almost any object. Worldwide standards and frequency regulations have been established and a wide infrastructure of identification systems is operated today. However, the passive nature of the technology requires a simple communication protocol which results in two major limitations with respect to its use for localization purposes: the small signal bandwidth and the small allocated frequency bandwidth. In the presence of multipath reflections, these limitations reduce the achievable localization accuracy and reliability. Thus, new methods have to be found to realize passive UHF RFID localization systems which provide sufficient performance in typical multipath situations. In this thesis, an enhanced transmission channel model for passive UHF RFID localization systems has been proposed which allows an accurate estimation of the channel behaviour to multipath. It has been used to design a novel simulation environment and to identify three solutions to minimize multipath interference: a) by varying the channel interface parameters, b) by applying diversity techniques, c) by installation of UHF absorbers. Based on the enhanced channel model, a new method for tag readability prediction with high reliability has been introduced. Furthermore, a novel way to rate the magnitude of multipath interference has been proposed. A digital receiver beamforming localization method has been presented which uses the Root MUSIC algorithm for angulation of a target tag and multipath reducing techniques for an optimum localization performance. A new multiangulation algorithm has been proposed to enable the application of diversity techniques. A novel transmitter beamforming localization approach has been presented which exploits the precisely defined response threshold of passive tags in order to achieve high robustness against multipath. The basic technique has been improved significantly with respect to angular accuracy and processing times. Novel experimental testbeds for receiver and transmitter beamforming have been designed, built and used for verification of the localization performance in real-world measurements. All the improvements achieved contribute to an enhancement of the accuracy and especially the robustness of passive UHF RFID localization systems in multipath environments which is the main focus of this research.
Supervisor: Pervez, Anjum ; Uwe, Dettmar Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral