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Title: New C-C chemokine receptor type 7 antagonists
Author: Ahmed, Mohaned S. A.
ISNI:       0000 0004 6495 6589
Awarding Body: University of Bradford
Current Institution: University of Bradford
Date of Award: 2016
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Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines which play an important role in the migration of immune cells to distant tissues or compartments within tissues. These proteins have also been demonstrated to play a major role in cancer metastasis. The C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) is a member of the chemokine receptor family. CCR7 along with its ligands CCL19 and CCL21 plays an important role in innate immune response by trafficking of lymphocytes. In cancer, tumour cells expressing CCR7 migrate to lymphoid organs and thus disseminate to other organs. Neutralizing the interactions between CCL21/CCR7 would therefore be expected to inhibit the progression and metastasis of many different types of cancer to regional lymph nodes or distant organs. Our objective was to identify a potent small molecule antagonist of CCR7 as a prelude to the investigation of the role of this axis in cancer metastasis. In this study, we provided a brief description of chemokines and their role in health and disease with an emphasis on the CCR7/CCL19/CCL21 axis, as well as identification of a CCR7 antagonist “hit”. The potency of the CCR7 antagonist “hit” was optimised by synthesizing different CCR7 antagonist analogues. The “hit” optimization process has led to discover the most active compound amongst a series of different analogues which have the ability to bind and block CCR7 receptor. The efficacy of the most active compound and other analogues were evaluated in vitro using a calcium flux assay which is based on detecting fluorescent light emitted upon release of calcium ions. To identify a suitable cell line, which expresses CCR7 and capably respond to it, amongst a panel of cell lines for in vitro assessment of potency of synthesised compounds, we used Western blot assay and later by flow cytometry assay. The activity and selectivity of the most effective compound against CCR7 receptor was evaluated in vitro by other functional assays such as “configured agarose spot assay” and scratch assay. We first configured the existing under agarose assay to fulfil our requirements and then used it to assess activity and selectivity of compounds. The configured agarose spot assay also describes the application of the agarose spot for evaluation of cells chemotactic response to multiple chemokines under identical experiment conditions.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Cancer ; Metastasis ; Chemokines ; Receptor ; CCR7 ; CXCR4 ; Antagonist ; G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) ; Medicinal chemistry ; Agarose spot assay