Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: The impact of elected Police and Crime Commissioners in England and Wales on police-black and ethic minority community relations, with specific reference to stop and search
Author: Derfoufi, Zin
ISNI:       0000 0004 6495 7442
Awarding Body: University of Warwick
Current Institution: University of Warwick
Date of Award: 2016
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Access from Institution:
Police and Crime Commissioners (PCCs) are hailed as one of the greatest constitutional reforms of the police in modern times and were elected in 2012 in a blaze of controversy. Whilst some claim these powerful actors can ensure policing is more responsive to local priorities, others claim that PCCs will undermine democratic police accountability by encouraging populism and inequalities, and become too close to their chief constables to ensure that they are more robustly held to account. This thesis investigates whether PCCs have improved local police accountability through a mixed-methods study of how police-initiated stops are governed in three PCC areas, using interviews, observations, and statistical and documentary analysis. As such, it is one of the first empirical studies to explore this new model of police governance, certainly in relation to the operation of police powers. Research suggests that police-initiated stops are a flash-point in relations with ethnic minority communities, are disproportionately used against them, and has reduced perceptions of police legitimacy. Despite this, their use has grown exponentially and, as this thesis argues, is exemplary of a democratic deficit in local police accountability whereby police officers have become more responsive to national government in exercising their powers rather than local priorities. Unexpectedly, stop and search became heavily politicised during the fieldwork, resulting in improved governance and dramatic reductions in their use. The findings suggest that this was due to national developments, thus indicating that although police powers are amenable to external influence, their governance remains highly centralised. However, chief officers remain powerful in determining whether any reforms are implemented locally. Despite potential controversies, PCCs have been able to influence various operational practices but appear too hesitant to risk this for 'minority issues' like police-initiated stops, thus undermining their own capacity to enhance local democratic police accountability.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare