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Title: A non-Newtonian perspective of gravity : testing modified gravity theories in galaxies and galaxy clusters
Author: Hodson, Alistair
ISNI:       0000 0004 6498 8839
Awarding Body: University of St Andrews
Current Institution: University of St Andrews
Date of Award: 2017
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This thesis attempts to test several frameworks of non-Newtonian gravity in the context of galaxies and galaxy clusters. The theory most extensively discussed was that of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) with Galileon gravity, Emergent Gravity (EG) and Modified Gravity (MOG) mentioned to a lesser extent. Specifically, the main focus of this thesis was to determine whether MOND and MOND-like theories were compatible with galaxy cluster data, without the need to include cold dark matter. To do this, the paradigms of Extended MOND (EMOND), Generalised MOND (GMOND) and superfluid dark matter were investigated. The theories were outlined and applied to galaxy cluster data. The main findings of this were that EMOND and GMOND had some success with explaining galaxy cluster mass profiles, without requiring an additional dark matter component. The superfluid paradigm also enjoyed some success in galaxy clusters, which was expected as it behaves in a similar manner to the standard cold dark matter paradigm in cluster environments. However, the superfluid paradigm may have issues in the very centre of galaxy clusters due to the theory predicting constant density cores, whereas the cold dark matter paradigm predicts density cores which are cuspier. The EMOND paradigm was also tested against ultra-diffuse galaxy (UDGs) data as they appear in cluster environments, where EMOND becomes important. It was found that EMOND can reproduce the inferred mass of the UDGs, assuming they lie on the fundamental manifold (FM). The validity of the assumptions used to model the UDGs are discussed in the text. A two-body problem was also conducted in the Galileon gravity framework. The amount of additional gravitational force, compared to Newtonian was determined for a small galaxy at the edge of a galaxy cluster.
Supervisor: Zhao, Hongsheng Sponsor: Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Galaxy dynamics ; Modified gravity ; Galaxy clusters