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Title: Enhancing progenitor cells for cell therapy after myocardial infarction
Author: Malandraki-Miller, Sophia
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2016
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Based on data from the World Healthcare Organisation, cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of disease-related death globally, with myocardial infarction (MI) being the most prevalent. If not treated effectively, MI can progress to heart failure (HF). With 70 million prescriptions for HF in 2014 and 515 people in the UK being hospitalised daily with MI, the British Heart Foundation calls for novel robust treatments. Even though cardiac stem cell (CSC) therapy for MI has been under investigation for more than a decade, there still has not been a consensus over the identity of the adult endogenous CSC. Recent clinical trials, using selected Ckit+ cells or the cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) have shown moderate results. The aim of this thesis was to develop a digestion-based method for isolation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) from the mouse atria. The resulting "CTs" were isolated by collagenase/trypsin (where their name has resulted from) digestion with a prolonged period step for cell attachment. CTs were compared to isolated CDCs for their marker expression, using RT-PCR and Immunocytochemistry, showing cells with a mesenchymal phenotype which expressed SCA1 and CKIT. The CDCs had more of a fibroblast phenotype with higher Ddr2 and Wt1 expression. Using a TGF-β1 differentiation protocol, the CTs could be differentiated more effectively to a CM lineage than could the CDCs. In addition, Oleic acid (OA) supplementation stimulated the Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha pathway and led to maturation of the CT cells, both before and after differentiation. The differentiated CTs begin to express Tnnt2, while OA led to Myh7 increase and upregulated their oxidative metabolism. Finally, the CTs were more able to survive under serum-starvation than the CDCs, and transfection with miR-210 could enhance CT survival under these conditions and increased VEGF secretion. By digestion of the whole atria and allowing a prolonged time for attachment, we have developed a novel isolation protocol which generates a cell population containing a range of progenitors. Cells within this population can survive under serum starvation and can be differentiated to a CM lineage, making them a promising therapeutic population.
Supervisor: Carr, Carolyn ; Smart, Nicola Sponsor: Clarendon Fund ; Rosetrees Trust
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Endogenous progenitor cells ; Myocardial infarction ; Stem cell metabolism ; Cardiac stem cells