Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.730100
Title: Computational modelling of brain transport phenomena : application of multicompartmental poroelasticity
Author: Chou, Dean
ISNI:       0000 0004 6494 2136
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2016
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Abstract:
The global population is predicted to increase to around 11 billion by 2100. By 2050, the average age in the most populous age group will be over sixty. The ageing population (over sixty-five) is projected to exceed the number of children by 2047. These demographics imply that as the ageing population section increases, there will be a greater need for long-term care services. In order to adequately prepare against this trend, medical experts and evidence-driven policymakers are realising that personalised healthcare can help alleviate the burden related to the planning and commissioning of services allied to long-term care. Central to this picture is conditions that affect the brain - the most important organ of the human body. Dementia, stroke, and other conditions have a tremendous impact on loss of life, quality of life and healthcare cost. The challenge regarding brain disease is exacerbated further due to the difficulty regarding accessibility of this organ, but also due to the immense complexity regarding its morphology and functionality. In this context, advanced biophysical modelling is considered a promising option for studying brain pathophysiology and becomes a priority investment regarding routes for brain research. Simulations offer the promise of improved, clinically relevant, predictive information, acceleration for the pipeline of drug discovery/design and better planning of long-term care for patients. Within this paradigm, a particular model of water transport in the cerebral environment is essential. Numerous brain disorders arise from water imbalance in the cerebral environment, such as hydrocephalus (HCP), oedema and Chiari malformations to name a few. In this research, a novel multiscale model of fluid regulation and tissue displacement in the cerebral environment is developed, arising from the use of Multiple-network Poroelastic Theory (MPET). Characteristics of a four-network poroelastic model (4MPET) are first explored. Then, this model is extended to a fully dynamic (transient) six-network model (6MPET) via the addition of two new compartments, namely the glial cells compartment and the glymphatic system compartment. The introduction of these two compartments in the MPET paradigm reflects recent seminal findings in cerebral physiology, namely the extent and importance regarding transport/clearance of the perivascular spaces of the brain vasculature. We develop and present a numerical implementation of the 6MPET model, and we utilise this framework to analyse acute HCP and cerebral oedema in a variety of settings, in order to show the enhanced capability of the proposed 6MPET model compared to the classical 4MPET. Investigations of acute hydrocephalus through the fully dynamic 6MPET reveal compensatory trans-ependymal pressure behaviour in the glymphatic compartment. It was also shown that aquaporin-4 (AQP4) deficient expression exaggerates ventriculomegaly, and this too is demonstrated in acute hydrocephalus. Additionally, using the 6MPET model, one is able to witness three mitigating factors for cytotoxic oedema. Specifically, these are: reducing water mobility in the glial cells compartment, increasing the compliance of the glial cells compartment and finally AQP4-deficient expression.
Supervisor: Ventikos, Yiannis Sponsor: VPH-DARE@IT
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.730100  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Biomedical engineering--Mathematical models ; hydrocephalus ; glymphatic system ; cerebromechanics ; Aquaporins ; water channels ; poroelasticity ; cerebral oedema
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