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Title: A study of the reactivity and coordination chemistry of N-heterocyclic carbenes with main group compounds
Author: Waters, Jordan
ISNI:       0000 0004 6497 4760
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2017
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This thesis describes selected reactivity studies of the N-heterocyclic carbene, IPr, towards a range of main group compounds. The synthesis and characterisation of sixty-three compounds, all of which incorporate IPr as a ligand in one of three coordination modes, are detailed herein. The deprotonation of IPr allowed for the isolation of an anionic source of the aIPr: ligand which was synthesised as a novel potassium salt and along with the previously reported lithium salt, was employed in reactions with group 12 and 14 bis(trimethylsilyl)amides and tetrahalides. The further chemistry of such novel products was investigated towards both electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents making use of both the pendant nucleophilic carbene functionality and the electrophilic main group centre. An alternative route to such species was investigated by the spontaneous isomerisation of IPr in the coordination sphere of group 14 tetrabromides and group 15 tribromides. The scope of this reactivity was subsequently investigated and was found to provide a simpler route to access the abnormal coordination mode of IPr. The aIPr ligand which is generated may be deprotonated by additional IPr thereby affording aIPr: ligands. The addition of halide abstracting agents allowed for the synthesis of cationic species stabilised by the coordination of either IPr or aIPr ligands. A unique, spontaneous reductive coupling of two phosphorus centres was discovered to take place upon heating a THF solution of (IPr)PBr3. This allowed for the isolation of a bromide bridged P–P bond with reduced phosphorus centres. This facile reduction chemistry was further explored by reaction with mild reducing agents which provide access to low oxidation state phosphorus compounds in high yields. This chemistry was found to be possible (and more effective) due to the presence of the weaker phosphorus bond to bromine relative to the commonly employed chlorine ligands.
Supervisor: Goicoechea, Jose Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Organometallic Chemistry ; Main Group Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry ; Arsenic ; N-Heterocyclic carbene ; Tin ; Germanium ; Ditopic ; Silicon ; Phosphorus ; Lead ; Low valent