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Title: Effect of nozzle guide vane shaping on high pressure turbine stage performance
Author: Rahim, Amir
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2017
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This thesis presents a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) study of high pressure gas turbine blade design with different realistic inlet temperature and velocity boundary conditions. The effects of blade shaping and inlet conditions can only be fully understood by considering the aerodynamics and heat transfer concurrently; this is in contrast to the sequential method of blade design for aerodynamics followed by cooling. The inlet boundary conditions to the NGV simulations are governed by the existence of discrete fuel injectors in the combustion chamber. An appreciation of NGV shaping design under engine realistic inflow conditions will allow for an identification of the correct three dimensional shaping parameters that should be considered for design optimisation. The Rolls-Royce efficient Navier-Stokes solver, HYDRA, was employed in all computational results for a transonic turbine stage. The single passage unsteady method based on the Fourier Shape Correction is adopted. The solver is validated under both rich burn (hot steak only) and the case with swirl inlet profiles for aerothermal characteristics; good agreement is noted with the validation data. Post processing methods were used in order to obtain time-averaged results and blade visualisations. Subsequently, a surrogate design optimisation methodology using machine learning combined with a Genetic Algorithm is implemented and validated. A study of the effect of NGV compound lean on stage performance is carried out and contrasted for uniform and rich burn inlets, and subsequently for lean burn. Compound lean is shown to produce a tip uploading at the rotor inlet, which is beneficial for rich burn, but detrimental for lean burn. It is also found that for rich burn, fluid driving temperature is more dominant than HTC in determining rotor blade heat transfer, the opposite sense to the uniform inlet. Also, for a lean burn inlet, there is another role reversal, with HTC dominating fluid driving temperature in determining heat transfer. A novel NGV design methodology is proposed that seeks to mitigate the combined effects of inlet hot streak and swirling flow. In essence, the concept two NGVs in a pair are shaped independently of each other, thus allowing the inlet flow non uniformity to be suitably accommodated. Finally, two numerical NGV optimisation studies are undertaken for the combined hot streak and swirl inlet for two clocking positions; vane impinging and passage aligned. Due to the prohibitive cost of unsteady CFD simulations for an optimisation strategy, a suitable objective function at the NGV exit plane is used to minimise rotor tip heat flux. The optimised shape for the passage case resulted in the lowest tip heat flux distribution, however the optimum shape for the impinging case led to the highest gain in stage efficiency. This therefore suggests that NGV lean and clocking position should be a consideration for future optimisation and design of the HP stage.
Supervisor: Khanal, Bidur Sponsor: Rolls-Royce plc
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Aircraft gas-turbines ; swirling flow ; hot streak ; Compound lean